The Rest of the Story: The Ancestors of Sarah May Paddock Otstott
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Richard GARNER (1604?-1643?)
|Father:||John GARNER (1578?-1628)|
|Mother:||Joan UNDERWOOD (1582?-bef1631)|
Individual Events and Attributes
|Birth||1604 (app)||Stanton Lacy Parish, Shropshire, England|
|Baptism||1604 (age 0)||Stanton Lacy Parish, Shropshire, England|
|Immigration||1636 (age 31-32)||to Norfolk County, Virginia from Shrewsbury, Shropshire, England|
|Death||1643 (app) (age 38-39)||Henrico County, Virginia|
|Immigration||after his wife was "found innocent of witchcraft by trial by water" (which meant she was wrongly executed by the state), took his three year old son John to Norfolk County, Virginia.|
|Children||John GARNER (1647-1702)|
|Marriage||1631 (app) (age 26-27)||England or Wales|
Individual Note 1
Richard Garner and his son John Garner were named as settlers in the Farrar's Island patent in Virginia. Their passage to Virginia was paid for by William Farrar.
"Know yee (should be 'thee' as the 'thorn' or 'th' has been misread as a 'y') that I...Sir John Harvey Kt. (Knight?), doe with the consent of th Councell of State accordingly give and grant unto Willaim Farrar sonne and heire of William Farrar late of Henrico deceased two thousand acres of Land at Henrico bounding and abutting Easterly upon the Glebeland of Varina and thence extending Westerly to the bottome of the Ysland, Southerly upon the maine River and North into the Woods...for the transportation at his own costs and charges of forty persons into the colony whose names are in the records written under this pattent to have and to hold ye (should be 'the') date ye (again) 10th of June 1637."
Settlers named in the Farrar's Island patent. Those with an asterisk also appear in the Muster of Jordan's Journey, 1625.
Frame (France), John *
Turner, Robert * (no relation)
(the above from Alvahn Holmes: (1)The Farrar' Island Family and its English Ancestry and (2) Some Farrar Island Descendants, Gateway Press, Inc., Baltimore, 1986. The selection comes from (1) p 163,4).
Title: Turner, Ralph, Recipient: J.H. Garner, Address: 14320 SW Rock Cr. Rd Sheridan, OR 97378-9735, Url: http://www.parsonstech.com/genealogy/trees/rturner1/turner.htm
Abbrev: Ralph Turner
Author: Ralph Turner
Individual Note 2
One of the earliest recorded persons with surname Garner to come to the United States was Richard Gardiner (people used Garner, Gardner, Garnier, and Gardiner interchangeably back then because many couldn’t read or write; or at least they were not that concerned about spelling.) Richard Gardiner came over on the Mayflower in 1620 [SMD] and he likely returned to England by 1624. He was fortunate because most people who came over on the Mayflower died within a few years of arriving (NOTE: It is not known if this Richard Garner & the Mayflower Richard Gardner are the same individual or not, or even if they were related). Another source of information on the early Garners is by Bean who says that a Garner was present in 1619 in the Isle of Wight County, Virginia [BEAN p.63, 74, and 149; GK p.1]. There were no Garners listed as passengers on the three ships that came to Virginia in 1607. The 1992 Supplement to [FILBY] lists immigrants named Clement Gardner (1619), James Gardner (1619), and John Gardner (1620). The Garners in America predate the Mayflower!
Title: Dr. James Luther Garner, Recipient: J.H. Garner, Address: 1713 River Oaks Rd., Jacksonville, FL 32207, Author E-mail: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, Page: http://www.unf.edu/~jgarner/garnergeneaology.html
Abbrev: Dr. James Luther Garner
Author: Dr. James Luther Garner
Individual Note 3
His wife Katharn, a "Welshwoman", was found innocent of witchcraft by trial of water in 1636. The realm subsequnetly gave £2 for her Christian burial.
Individual Note 4
The Lion Inn, once owned by Richard Garner of Aston Botterell and later by his nephews John and Richard Garner of Shrewsbury, still exists. A guide book description: "Lion--It dates from Tudor timesand was "modernized about 200 years ago to become the center of the town's social life. Paganini played his violin in the elegant Adams-style ball room, Jenny Lind sang here, and Disraeli stayed while campaigning for votes. A George III staircase and huge stone fireplace add to the traditional atmosphere. Underneath it all is a labyrinth of cellars where Catholic mass was whispered in secret during the Reformation. Recently redecorated, the 60 bedrooms (all with bath and shower) are very comfortable and the bar is a pleasant place for a simple lunch. Telephone: 0743-53107, priced moderate.
Title: Letter from Gwendoline Rosa (Wilkins) Garner of Randallstown, MD to William Garner of Montgomery, AL, Recipient: William Garner, Author Address: 3800 Elmcroft Rd, Randallstown, MD 21133-4616
Abbrev: Garner, Gwendoline (Wilkins)
Author: Gwendoline Rosa Garner nee Wilkins
Publication: Oct 5, 1992
Individual Note 5
This is an update on what I have learned regarding Richard Garner of Shrewsbury to date. I am indebted to David Austerberry, a fellow member of the Shropshire Family History Society, for providing me with the complete Gardner extracts from the unpublished parish registers of St. Alkmund's and St. Julian's. ( I already had those from St. Mary's and St. Chad's ) He also gave me his expertise on the Shrewsbury Gardners from whom he believes our Richard descends and why.
Let me say at the outset that I am convinced that the original surname was Gardiner and that family members and record keepers were simply inconsistent in its spelling. (The illiteracy of many of our ancestors contributed to this.) Thus, we have various members of the same family or descent recorded as Gardiner, Gardener, Gardner, Gardnor, Garner, Garnar, etc. One example of this phenomena are the St. Chad baptismal records of the children of John and Elizabeth Garner, who were contemporaries of our Richard (and probably related). They had thirteen children, of whom eleven survived. With two exceptions, both parents' names were entered in each baptismal record. Of the thirteen records, the name is rendered "Garner" in eleven, "Gardner" in one, and "Gardiner" in three. Another example: in John Garner of Virginia's 1702 will, his name was rendered as "Garner", but that of his wife Susanna, the executor, and that of his grandson William, a witness, were rendered as "Gardner".
After examining the records of all four parishes, it is evident that there were only two Richard Gardners living in Shrewsbury in the opening decades of the 17th century:
One was the Richard Gardner of St. Chad's parish, who was married to Katherine and whose son John was baptized in that parish in 1634. He may have been the father of another John who was baptized and buried in St. Julian's church in 1632. Richard has no baptismal record, as the St. Chad registers prior to 1616 have not survived. His lineage no doubt lies in those missing registers. He and his family disappear from the registers after the sole entry of the 1634 christening of his son.
The other Richard Gardner was a dyer and innkeeper of St. Mary's parish. He was the son of a John Gardner and the grandson of Richard Gardiner, the dyer of Frankwell. His ancestry is outlined in Herald's Visitation to Shropshire 1623. After 1623, we have the baptismal records of his three daughters: Mary (1636), Sarah (1638) and Mary (1644). He also had a daughter named Elizabeth who died in 1641, but have only her burial record. These are all in the St. Mary's parish registers. That he was their father, is also attested to in the Gardner pedigree by James Lawson and another Gardner pedigree prepared by Rev. Fletcher which I recently acquired from the Shropshire Archives. The Richard Gardner of St. Mary's parish died in Shrewsbury in 1646.
As the vital records of Richard's parents, siblings, and immediate forebears are probably lost with the missing St. Chad registers, I had to look for other records to find what information may exist about him and his ancestry. One advantage I had in evaluating any records I may find is that the Richard Gardner of St. Mary's parish was apprenticed in the Drapers Company in 1605, near or before the time when Richard Gardner of St. Chad's parish would have reasonably been born. Apprenticeships were typically entered in one's teens, which means that the Richard of St. Mary's was substantially older than the Richard of St. Chad's. Thus, the dating of a record would determine which of these two Richards it referred to.
I have found two records whose chronology would only fit the Richard of St. Chad's, not the Richard of St. Mary's:
The first is the admission of a Richard Gardener to the Shrewsbury School 13 December 1619. Among the Gardners who enrolled in the 16th and early 17th century, he is the only Richard. He was admitted into the third form (the lowest). The sucessful student was expected to progress to the first form before he left the school. The enrollment age in the Tudor period ranged from 6 to 17 years of age, with 10/11 being the average. His enrollment fee was 4 pence - not very much. This indicates that he was the son of a burgess of Shrewsbury town. This information (as well the data for all the Gardner enrollees for the period) was provided by Mike Morrough, the archivist for the Shrewsbury School.
The second record was an apprenticeship list. Since many of the Shrewsbury Gardners were Drapers, I looked online for any evidence that our Richard was a member of that Company. The only Richard mentioned in the Drapers records I was able to find was the one of St. Mary's parish. However, I found an apprentice record for what appears to be our Richard in a book called Transactions of the Shropshire Archaelogical and Natural History Society, Vol. IV, 1881. (google books) The chapter on "The Guilds of Shrewsbury" by Rev. W.A. Leighton contains excerpts from the records of the "Companie of Taylers and Skinners in the Town of Salop", including the apprenticeship lists. On page 230 is the following entry, the only Gardners on the list:
1621 Nov. 22. Richard Gardner s. of George Gardner of Shrewsbury deceased to Roger Cocke. (departed without freedom).
The date is the date of indenture, that is, the date Richard entered into his apprenticeship. This tells us that his father was named George, who was "of Shrewsbury", i.e. a burgess of the town and who had died by Nov. 22,1621. An apprenticeship normally lasted 7 years and according to the bylaws of the company the apprentice had to be at least 24 years old to gain freeman status upon the completion of his apprenticeship. So Richard was probably in his teens. Roger Cocke was the man to whom he was apprenticed. However, this record also tells us that Richard left the apprenticeship before completing it. When, it does not say.
So the picture that emerges of Richard so far is this:
He was born in the St. Chad's parish of Shrewsbury, possibly in the suburb of Frankwell, probably in the first decade of the 17th century. His father was a George Gardner. He was admitted in the Shrewsbury School in 1619.
By 1621, his father had died and in that year Richard entered into an apprenticeship with Roger Cocke in the Company of Taylers and Skinners [furriers] in Shrewsbury. Sometime during the next seven years Richard left the guild without becoming a freeman. What occupation or trade he subsequently pursued is not known.
He married Katherine, possibly as early as 1631, and may have fathered a son John in 1632, who did not survive infancy. Katherine bore him another son, John, in 1634. By 1637, Richard and his son John were present on Farrar's Island, Henrico County, Virginia. Katherine had died by then, the circumstances of which are not known. There exists no public record of Richard after 1637. John appears next in a 1650 land patent in Northumberland County.
George and Richard were very likely descendants of Richard Gardiner of Frankwell, but this cannot be proved at present, because of the missing St. Chad's registers. After having immersed myself in the known Gardner pedigrees and surviving parish records, my opinion is that is it more likely that George and Richard were collateral, rather than direct, descendants of the aforementioned Richard Gardiner, dyer, philanthropist and author of the first English book on horticulture in 1603 called "Profitable Instructions".
Posted by: Robin Garner (ID *****4597) Date: July 06, 2010 at 04:56:43
In Reply to: Richard Garner of Shrewsbury, England, father of John Garner of Virginia by Patrick Garner of 6602
From my findings on Katheran (Kathrine) Garner 1604-1634 the cause of her death was drowning, by the dunking stool, on charges of witchcraft or some kind of heresey. I have contacted the Archives in Shropshire, England and they have no record of Kathran (Kathrine) Garner. I have even asked about a researacher that might know something about Kathran (Kathrine) Garner in the 16th Century, and they do not even have a researcher that knows anything about her.
PErhaps becasue she was a Welsh woman this made her different.
Posted by: Patrick Garner (ID *****3558) Date: July 06, 2010 at 09:36:48
In Reply to: Re: Richard Garner of Shrewsbury, England, father of John Garner of Virginia by Robin Garner of 6602
There is no verifiable evidence for the Kathryn Garner witchcraft story. It originated with a researcher by the name of Nathan Garner in 1991. Please see my post in this forum for the details: http://genforum.genealogy.com/garner/messages/6345.html. No one has found baptismal records, a marriage record nor burial records for her or her husband Richard, so we cannot prove exactly where or when either one was born, married or died. The only parish record that has been found is that of the baptism of their son John at St. Chad's parish church in Shrewsbury on 2 Sept 1634.
Posted by: Robin Garner (ID *****4597) Date: July 07, 2010 at 05:09:20
In Reply to: Re: Richard Garner of Shrewsbury, England, father of John Garner of Virginia by Patrick Garner of 6602
Have you looked on http://www.ancestry.com for these findings?
Posted by: Patrick Garner (ID *****3558) Date: July 07, 2010 at 10:45:58
In Reply to: Re: Richard Garner of Shrewsbury, England, father of John Garner of Virginia by Robin Garner of 6602
I have done research on ancestry.com on the Garners. But the information in my post have come from other sources. I visited Shrewsbury in 2008 and subsequently joined the Shropshire Family History Society. Several of the members who live in Shropshire have been helping me research the Garners/Gardners of Shrewsbury. One culled the Gardner references in the parish registers of St. Julian's and St. Alkmund's parish churches, which are not published or available in online databases. The other Shrewsbury parish registers, those of St. Chad's and St. Mary's, are in ancestry's database.
The record of Richard Gardener's 1619 enrollment at Shrewsbury School I got from the school archivist. I discovered the 1621 apprenticeship record via a google search.1
Individual Note 6
Richard Gardiner (May 29, 1592 England-c1648 St. Mary's, MD) Or Thomas Garner Or Richard Garner
m Elizabeth Hame (1595 England- ? St. Mary's, MD) m Mary Lacye m Katharn?
Mary Richard Jone Elizabeth Luke Juliana John Garner (1633 England-1702 Va) Roger Bennett Richard Luslick Elizabeth Haddon m Susanna Keene (? Kent Isle, MD - c1716)
John Henry Vincent Thomas Parish Benjamin James Mary Susan Martha
Jane Joyce Catharine Bradley? Martha ? Mary Bushnell Elizabeth Parker (never married) Mary ? Will. Price Will. Lewis
John Thomas Vincent Parish Charles James Susanna
Jane Bangar Mary ? Jemima Williams Margaret Sturdy Ann Darnell Elizabeth Freeman Thomas Seddon
Joseph Jale Elizabeth Ann Charles Presley
Sally (Sarah) Orr (Dodd) (never married) ? Robbins Jacob Burgess Hannah ? Margaret Hinson
Malinda Rosa Sophia Sally Gilford Joseph John A.
Charles Burger ? Burger ? Goodwin ? White Sarah ? Lydia ? Elizabeth Tillison
Francis Marion William Adam John Anderson Molly E. Edythe Josephine
Martha Ann Sharp Charlotte Lewis Sarah Sharp John Willie Sharp William Mark Harding
Mona Marion Harlan Wiley James Luther Dana
(never married) Fannie Montez Marchbank Bess Marchbank (never married) Halley ?
Cecil Leonard Imogene James Luther Duke Keith Ruby Tull Sammy
Ollie Mae Lusk Eleanor ? Russell Gaines Sunshine Mick Sue Dison Willie Pearcy Speedy Walden MableVannoy Sonnie Poe
Joseph Marion Patricia Ann Sandra Lou Lelia Montez Connie Jay James Luther
Pat Phillips Loren Leonberger 1. Larry Lawson Steve Brixie 1. Glenn Graves Carol Jean Murphey
2. Mark Nemeth | 2.Bill Bettcher |
3.Greg Goldcamp |
Renee Born Vincent Gordon Lawson Steve Jennifer Katherine Murphey
Jeannie Lampe Timothy Mark Nemeth Richard Shannon Graves Anne Randolph
Joseph Scott Nemeth Debra
Elizabeth Hoyman Gina
The present genealogy makes extensive use of several sources: The Garner-Keene Families of the Northern Neck of Virginia by Ruth Ritchie and Sudie Rucker Wood [abbreviated GK] and Southern Garners by Sam Garner, MD [abbreviated SG]. GK was published in 1952 and SG was published in 1978 and updated in 1998. Another source for this work is Dunkin-Reid and Garner-McGraw-Mobley Families of South Carolina, Georgia, and Alabama by Dean Smith Cress [CRESS]. Janie Dooley [JD] also provided invaluable information in her entry F197 Garner Family in The Lafayette County Heritage, Mississippi (1986). Finally, I must acknowledge the helpful data given to me by my Aunt Gene Moore and Uncle Duke Garner taken from the family Bible records, [AGUD].
It would serve no useful purpose to repeat what has already been done at great length by these sources. Consequently, the focus here will be twofold: to give a capsule review of material in the above sources that is pertinent to this particular genealogy and secondly, to supplement the sources with additional information. It will be pointed out in the text whenever new material is given that is not found in the above sources. The present work is of much narrower focus than the GK and SG comprehensive accounts. Here the concern is with tracing the direct line of James Luther Garner (b.1917-d.1970).
This paper follows an historical framework of the United States beginning with the Colonial period, followed by the Revolutionary War period, the Civil War period, and on into the Twentieth Century. A detailed list of references may be found at the end of this work. A summary of this genealogy is presented above without inclusion of dates for brevity. The names in bold are my direct ancestors.
One of the earliest recorded persons with surname Garner to come to the United States was Richard Gardiner (people used Garner, Gardner, Garnier, and Gardiner interchangeably back then because many were illiterate or were not that concerned about spelling.) Richard Gardiner came over on the Mayflower in 1620 [SMD] and he likely returned to England by 1624. He was fortunate because most people who came on the Mayflower died within a few years of arriving [BOORSTIN].
Another source on the early Garners is by Bean who says that a Garner was present in 1619 in the Isle of Wight County, Virginia [BEAN p.63, 74, and 149; GK p.1]. There were no Garners listed as passengers on the three ships that came to Virginia in 1607. The 1992 Supplement to [FILBY] lists immigrants named Clement Gardner (1619), James Gardner (1619), and John Gardner (1620). The Garners in America predate the Mayflower!
The first person with which the present work is concerned is John Garner (b.1633-d.1702). John came to Northumberland County, Virginia in 1650 at the age of seventeen [GK p.1 and CHAPPELEAR p.98]. Greer [GREER p.124] has John Garner listed, as was pointed out by Ms. Ritchie. His transportation to Virginia was provided by Lewis Burwell [GK p.1 and NUGENT p. 199 and 315]. Lewis Burwell was responsible for bringing many people to Virginia [WERTENBAKER p.48 and 109] and he was the father of one of the leading colonial families of Virginia [WRIGHT p.56 and 112; VIRKUS p.736; MEYER p.144]. At that time a person was given a patent, which was a grant from the government of England, for fifty acres for each immigrant the person brought into the new colony [BOORSTIN p.100 ]. The land was given to the individual who provided the transportation not to the new immigrant. However, the new immigrant received land if he or she paid his or her own way [RITCHIE p. 68].
In many cases (about 3 out of 4) the new immigrant was an indentured servant [DABNEY p. 29, 31,33, and 34; ROBINSON p. 39] and this was possibly the case with John Garner. Note that an indentured servant could have been a "gentleman" in England [DABNEY p.34] and so this is not necessarily a negative term. On the other hand, some of the original immigrants were prisoners or orphans but it didn?t take much of an offense to be convicted [DABNEY p.21; BALLAGH p.34 and 35]. Indentured servants would have to work for four or five years to pay off the person who provided their transportation [BALLAGH p. 49 and 50]. They could have been given fifty acres of land as part of their contract but most had to buy their land [ROBINSON p. 37 and 38].
Apparently, John Garner came back again in 1654 since a Thomas Hobkins is listed as providing John's transportation in that year [GK, p.1]. It is interesting that on both occasions, in 1650 and 1654, listed with John is a Thomas Broughton+. Thomas was to eventually become John's father-in-law. Mary Keene, the mother of John's future wife Susanna Keene, married Thomas Keene who was Susanna?s father. When Thomas Keene died, Mary married Henry Raynor. After Raynor died she finally married Thomas Broughton in 1658 [GK, p. 191]. Since John married Susanna in about 1660 it is possible that he met Susanna through his friendship with Thomas Broughton. Thomas Broughton was also quite active in transporting new colonists to Virginia [NUGENT p. 598].
According to [HISTORICAL ATLAS] and [NUGENT, pg. 199 and pg. 315] Lewis Burwell on Oct. 17, 1650 transported into Northumberland County 32 persons for 1,600 acres of land adjacent to William Gooch and Richard Lee. Thomas Hobkins on Sept. 6, 1654 transported in 28 persons for 1,400 acres of land adjacent to William Mells and John Catlett. These are their names:
Lewis Burwell 1650 Thomas Hobkins 1654
1. Thomas Wakin 1. William Wheeler
2. Sam Benford (or Beuford) 2. John Hallows*
3. Eliz. Watley 3. John Tue* [GARDINER, p.xliv]
4. John Jackson 4. William Freeke
5. Negro Man 5. Robert Street
6. Negro Man 6. Restitute Hollis, Sr.
7. Negro Woman 7. Restitute Hollis, Junr.
8. Geo. Epherby 8. John Knott
9. Henry Wright 9. Edward Fryar
10. Phan. Parney 10. Thomas Youle*
11. Xtopr. Sadleway 11. Ann Yowell, Senr.*
12. Sara Cowley 12. Ann Yowell, Junr.*
13. Tho. Hardy 13. And. Munroe*
14. Symon Varly 14. Thomas Yowell*
15. Henry Sanderson 15. William Yowell*
16. John Roggers 16. Tho. Broughton
17. Eliz. Closby 17. Ann Williams
18. Grigory Maine 18. Edward Dawson
19. Edward Digby 19. John Garner
20. Mary Farr 20. John Eaton
21. Dyana Fryth 21. Geo. Eaton
22. Samuell Moseley 22. John Ridly
23. Eliz. Moseley 23. Rob. Burwell
24. Jone Moseley his daughter 24. John Hooks
25. Tho. Broughton 25. Peter Ward
26. Ann Williams 26. Con. Gamberson
27. Edw. Dawson 27. Nath. Winly
28. John Garner 28. Harry Renn
29. James Parney Assignee of A. Moon
30. Tobyas Cowley Assignee of Mr. Hollis & John Eaton
* came in from St. Mary's , MD
+ Among these lists there are four names in common: John Garner, Thomas Broughton, Ann Williams, and Edward Dawson
GK lists the children of John Garner by his wife Susanna Keene (probably b. on Kent Island on the Potomac- d. c1716). GK reviews the history of land grants or purchases by John in addition to giving his will, but the location of his grave is not mentioned. According to GK John settled near present-day Lewisetta, Virginia west of Garner?s creek. Garner?s creek is no longer referred to by that name. Actually there are two Garner?s creeks- one is located adjacent to Cypress Farm which is near Lewisetta (see map) while the other one is near Kinsale. A short history of the latter body of water comes from [NORRIS p.68],
"Gardner Creek was named for one of the Garner family who owned the Hurd grant of 500 acres on the north side of the creek for over 63 years. John Garner bought it in 1698. It then passed to his son, John, who willed it to his son, Abraham, in 1712, he then willing it to his daughter, Frances, in 1761. It was first known as Heards Creek (sometimes spelled Hurds) until at least the mid-18th century. Later, early in the 19th century, it was call Crab Creek (q.v.). The present spelling of the name appeared on charts in 1825, which is evidently a map maker's error as the Garners did not use that spelling in their wills."
In about 1672 they moved a short distance to Westmoreland county to near the present-day village of Kinsale. Tobacco was the main crop, it was lucrative as now [BOORSTIN p. 100], and was the currency at that time [DABNEY p. 25]. John Garner was not among the elite planters in 17th century Virginia by any stretch of the imagination but he was a landowner. (The Garner name was not listed among the top twenty leading planters in, e.g. , [WERTENBAKER p. 48 and 109] or [WRIGHT p.56 and 112].) As indicated, his land was initially in Northumberland County and later in Westmoreland County. Little of a personal nature is given by GK other than the fact that John lived by farming as practically everyone else did at that time. The early population of Virginia was incredibly small:
VIRGINIA'S POPULATION IN THE 1600's
YEAR POPULATION SOURCES
1609 500 Dabney, p.18
1610 60 or 210 Dabney, p. 19; Serow, p. 4
1616 351 Dabney, p. 26
1619 2,500 Dabney, p. 3
1620 2,400 Serow, p. 4
1625 1,095 Dabney, p. 39
1630 3,000 Serow, p. 4
1635 5,000 Dabney, p. 42
1640 7,647 Serow, p. 4
1650 17,000 Serow, p. 4
1660 33,000 Serow, p. 4
1671 40,000 Dabney, p. 53
1680 49,000 Serow, p. 4
1690 58,000 Serow, p. 4
1700 72,000 Serow, p. 4
John was a landowner and as a freeman he had voting rights [DABNEY p. 42 ]. Given the amount of land owned by John just before he died, over 2000 acres is a reasonable estimate given the numbers in his will, it is safe to assume that John was not a pauper.
The Northern Neck of Virginia is known for several of its native sons including Presidents George Washington, James Madison, James Monroe and the famous Lee family [RITCHIE p. 68; NORRIS]. However, it is unlikely that John Garner was a "gentleman" which is no insult because this word had a special meaning at that time [WRIGHT].
An omission in the exhaustive study of Garner genealogy by GK is the origin of John Garner, who were his parents and where did they come from? GK were certainly aware of this omission and said they did not know where John Garner came from but thought England to be almost certainly the country of his origin. In early Virginia, as opposed to Massachusetts, the immigrants that populated a given county of Virginia tended to come from the same area of England [RITCHIE p. 68]. The International Genealogical Index of the LDS church lists four John Garners christened in England in 1634.
One of these four John Garners was born in Kent, England with parents Thomas Garner and Mary Lacye. According to [SG private communication] Mrs. Wilbur C. Garner (Gwendoline), 3800 Elmscroft Road, Randallstown, Maryland 21133, visited England in 1989 and found the "Register Books of Christeninges Marriages and Burialls in Saint Dunstan, Canterbury 1559-1800" Edited by J. Meadows Cowper where it stated that Thomas [b. about 1610 Kent] and Mary Lacye [b. about 1613 in Kent] were married 24 October 1631, Canterbury, Parish of Saint Dunstan. This information is also in the IGI. Thomas and Mary had a son, John Garner, who was christened 4 May 1634, Canterbury, St. Dunstan. [ St. Dunstan church is an old and famous parish church of Canterbury Cathedral; most famous for being the church where Thomas More was a member in the late Middle Ages before the Reformation.] A 22 year old Thomas Gardner is listed as coming to Virginia August 10, 1635 on the ship, Safety (Captain John Graunt) [HOTTEN p. 123]. Perhaps this was John's father? A more plausible possibility is found in [GREER p.123] where in 1650, the same year that John Garner was transported to Northumberland County, a Thomas Gardner came to Northumberland County, transported in by Mrs. Frances Townshend and the same year a Mary Gardner was transported in by Ralph Green but the county is not named. These could have been husband and wife since it was possible to have a different person pay for the transport of husband, wife, and children. ([GREER p. 190] lists in 1653 the Keene family acquired land in Northumberland County. That year Col. William Clayborne transported Thomas Keene in, Thomas Keene transported in his wife, Mary, and son William but a Jervais Dodson transported in Susan Keene.) Additional credence to the theory that John Garner's parents were Thomas Garner and Mary Lacye is John named one of his seven sons Thomas and one of his three daughters Mary (the second daughter was named Susan after Susanna Keene and Martha was the name of the third daughter). However, it is also possible that the daughter Mary was named after her grandmother, Mary Keene and the son Thomas was named after his grandfather. At this time I do not believe there is sufficient evidence to prove these were John's parents.
Among the four John Garners born in 1633 England there was a John Garner who was christened 2 September, 1634 at Saint Chad, Shrewsbury, England which is in the Shropshire County. This city is in west central England near to Wales. His parents were Richard Garner and Katharn ? Of the three options I have found, I believe this option to be the most likely. There is a story on the web about Kathryn Garner being tried as a witch in Shropshire in 1636-- she was found guilty and therefore died. Richard and his young son John (3 or 4 years old at the time) left England and arrived in Henrico County, VA transported by William Farrar in 1637. [Nugent] According to the Henrico County Court Order Book for 1643/44, Richard died in 1643 and ten year old John was made a ward of William Farrar, Jr. John inherited 500 pounds, a substantial sum for that time, sent to him by his uncle John still in Shropshire. Part of the money came from the sale of the Garner's business in Shropshire, an inn. Presumably, John then migrated to Northumberland County from Henrico County 7 years later in 1650 but I still need to prove this.
Finally, another possibility exists. According to [GARDINER], [SKORDAS, pp175-176] and LDS records, a family of Gardiners came into Maryland in 1637. The parents' names were Richard Gardiner (b. 1590 in England-d. c. 1648 St. Mary's, MD) who in 1614 in England married Elizabeth Hame (b. 1595 in England-d.? St. Mary's, MD). They arrived in St. Marys MD in 1637. They had children all of whom were born in England, Mary (b. 1615 in Surrey ENG- d. after 1693 in Oxfordshire ENG) who stayed in England, Richard (b. 1616 in Surrey ENG d. 1693 in Mechanicsville, St. Marys, Oakley MD), Jone (b. 1617 in Surrey ENG-d. ? in Oxfordshire ENG) who stayed in England, Elizabeth (b. 1618 in Surrey ENG -d.c. 1642 St. Marys MD), Luke (b. 1622 in Oxfordshire ENG- d. 1674 St. Mary's, MD), Juliana (b. 1630 in - d.?) and John? (b. 1633 in Surrey ENG? d. ?). These Garner's were concentrated in St. Mary's, Maryland, which is immediately across the Potomic River from Lewisetta, Virginia. St. Mary's is the oldest settlement in MD. The LDS records point out that Luke married in 1649 in St. Mary's, MD an Elizabeth Hatton (b. 1/1/1663 in London d. abt.1702 in MD). Elizabeth Hatton's father, Richard (born in Shropshire, England) and mother, Margaret, were landowners in the Northern Neck as late as 1652. Luke's son, Richard Gardiner , whose house the White House was copied from, married Virginian Elizabeth Wiere, daughter of John Wiere and Honoria Jones, of Rappahannock Cty. Garner's were present in abundance in St. Mary's through the years. Recall, Thomas Keene, Susannah's father, also lived in St. Mary's. According to an article in [Bull. Northumb. C. Hist. Soc., 1998, page 30] as well as [Hist. Atlas Westm. C.] many of the original inhabitants of both Northumberland and Westmoreland Counties came over from St. Mary's MD. In addition, we know from [GARDINER, pg. 30] that Luke Gardiner, his sister Juliana Gardiner , and possibly his brother John (our John?) traveled from St. Mary's to Virginia to avoid Richard Ingle's raids on St. Mary's in summer 1645. It is probable that Richard and Elizabeth died at the hands of Ingle since there are no records of them after 1645 and we know that St. Richard's Manor was sacked by Ingle. The daughter Elizabeth and her husband Richard Luslick also have no records after 1642, so they were likely dead. Luke and Juliana returned to St. Marys in 1647 with Leonard Calvert but no mention is made of John. Did John stay behind? Is this our John? Looking back a couple pages, you will notice quite a number of the 1654 patentees of Mr. Hobkins came over from St. Marys, MD. On the basis of all this evidence it would not be too far-fetched if John Gardiner is our John Garner.
However, a point against this John being our John is that none of John's children bear names of Richard or Luke or Elizabeth. Also, there are no records of our John ever having contacts in MD. One explanation could be, the MD Gardiners were Catholic's and our John was a member of the Church of England, as were the Keene's. In addition, most of John Gardiner's family would have been dead by the time he settled in VA circa 1650. These pieces of evidence are interesting, but I believe the data favors the son of the Shropshire family. Additional details still need to be sought out.
Now let us really speculate. I wonder if this Richard Gardiner of MD is somehow related to the Richard Gardiner who came alone over on the Mayflower to Plymouth in 1620? The Richard at Plymouth left Plymouth between 1624 and June 1, 1627 and never returned to Plymouth. His parents were John and Lucy (Russell) Gardiner from Harwich, County Essex. This information is from [SMD]. [GARDINER, pg.xli] also considered this possible connection but was not able to prove anything. All of this comes down to, we still are not absolutely positive who John Garner's parents were and there is a chance we may never know for sure.
GK lists the children of Thomas Garner (abt 1655-d.1726) who married Mary Bushnell. Thomas settled in 1700 in Stafford County, Virginia. Thomas Gardner is listed as patenting 625 acres on Tinpot Run and Licking Run in Fauquier County in 1725 [F p.23 and GK p. 65]. GK lists the children of Thomas and his will [GK p. 66-67]. Also, the bulk of GK's book is devoted to the chapter on Thomas.
REVOLUTIONARY WAR PERIOD
GK lists the children of Thomas and their dates on p.67. The child of Thomas Garner of primary interest here is Charles Garner (? -1798) who married c1746 Ann Darnell the daughter of Waugh Darnell and widow of Jonas Williams. Charles lived many years in Fauquier county where he died in 1798. The reference [F p. 171] lists Charles Garner as a member of the Militia but Ms. Ritchie believed that this Charles was a nephew of Charles [RITCHIE p. 78]. A record involving a sale of 60 acres of land to John Wright in 1748 by Charles and Ann Garner of Prince William county is recorded in [TQH p. 229-230 and GK p. 108]. Charles sued his brothers to recover his share of the children of a slave sold in 1732 [GK p. 108]. There is no evidence that Charles fought in the Revolutionary War but his son Charles did [GWATHMEY p. 298; STEWART entry 245; WHITE p. 1314]. GK lists other land records and on p.108 GK lists the children of Charles.
The child of Charles Garner of primary interest here is Joseph Garner (b.1753 in Fauquier County, Virginia- d. December, 20, 1840 in Cherokee County, Alabama) who married December 22, 1790 in Fauquier County, Virginia Sally (Sarah) Orr (Dodd). According to p. 109 in GK, in 1797 Joseph lived in Culpeper, Virginia, where he was paying on 286 acres of land formerly owned by a Hisle and he paid on this land for five years. GK states that in 1789 Joseph was 36 years old, he had been wounded in the arm as a private in the 1st Virginia Regiment, and his pay was 24 pounds per annum. According to [REV p. 45], Joseph enlisted in the 1st VA Regiment on 5 September 1775 and he was wounded the next spring at Williamsburg. Also, Henrico Co. depositions 5 September, 1791 by Col. Martin Pickett states that he had lost or mislaid Gardner's pension certificate, signed by J. Pendleton.
There is more evidence that Joseph Garner served during the Revolutionary War. He enlisted in Fauquier County, Virginia, served in Capt. William Blackwell's Co., and in Cols. Daniel Morgan's VA. Regt. [JULICH p.223]. He was given a pension on application in Clarke County, Georgia. His widow, Sarah, was given a pension on her application that was applied for October 13, 1842 at which time she was aged 68 and a resident of Cherokee County, Alabama (Pension No. W7496) [JULICH p.224]. A Sarah Garner , born in VA, is listed as a resident (80 years old) of Cherokee County, Alabama in 1850 [CHEROKEE p.14].
Furthermore, [JULICH p. 224] states that Joseph moved from Fauquier County, Virginia in 1802 to Georgia and in 1815 he was a resident of Clarke County, Georgia. In 1818 he was 64 years old and still a resident of Clarke County. In 1820, he moved to Alabama and lived there for some time in Saint Clair County. The children of Joseph and Sarah are also listed in JULICH and by [SG p. 128]:
Malinda Burger, Rosa Burger, Sophia Goodwin, Sally White, Gilford, Joseph, John
Other references that confirm the above sources on Joseph's war record and family include:
[GANRUD p. 90-93] which states that Joseph said he enlisted in 1774/5 under Capt. William Blackwell in the 7th Virginia Regiment and that John Marshall was the 1st Lieut. (later Supreme Court Chief Justice). He served the entire enlistment. He was paid 10 lbs. per annum as a pensioner. Thomas Page and John Marshall confirmed Joseph's service record in a letter in 1819. The census record of Alabama for the year 1850, Cherokee County, 27th District, Family #1083 shows the children of Joseph including John and his, mother, wife and children, Gilford, and Joseph.
In addition, this source quotes an article in the "Tuscaloosa News", Feb. 16, 1976 entitled "Cemetery out of People's Mind", Gadsden, Alabama. Joseph Garner is buried in the "Garner cemetery" in North Gadsden and his marker reads, "Joseph Garner, Sgt. 15 Va Regt. Rev. War, 1754-1840". The cemetery dates to the early 1800s. Some of the above information is also in [WHITE p. 1314]. SG also includes several references on the Joseph Garner line [SG p. 129], e.g. an article in the "Gadsden Times" from 19 March, 1978 is mentioned. See also Appendix 1 where an article is reproduced from the magazine, Family Puzzlers, No. 568, Sept. 7, 1978 pp 4-5. Among other things, this article gives the detailed location of Joseph Garner's grave, which is on the Alabama Register of Landmarks and Heritage. This same article states that Joseph "was wounded at Brandywine [this was at that time in VA, now it is in WVA], fought at Valley Forge, and was discharged at White Plains, NY."
[DAR1 p. 81] and [DAR2 p. 1127] lists Joseph Garner (1754-12/20/1840 AL) m Sarah Orr and was a private in VA in the Rev. War. See also, [STEWART, entry 245].
[GWATHMEY p. 298] lists Joseph Garner as a Sgt. in the 10,11,11, and 15 continental lines during the Revolutionary War.
[BRUMBAUGH p. 438] lists Joseph Garner as a VA Sgt. who served 3 years in the Rev. War.
[OWEN p. 41] lists Joseph as a private in the Virginia Continental Line and pensioner of Rev. War.
[VA LINE] lists Joseph in 1835 as a sergeant in the Va Line infantry who had not received bounty land.
It seems there is a bit of confusion regarding Joseph's rank, private or sergeant?
The period 1802-1820 when Joseph was in Georgia is a period when many Garners migrated to Georgia [CRESS].
CIVIL WAR PERIOD
The child of Joseph Garner of primary interest in this work is John A. Garner (b.3/15/1815-d. c1870 in Pontontoc, Mississippi near Oxford). John was born in Clarke County, Georgia, his wife's name was Elizabeth (age 22 in 1850 and born in Tennessee), and the 1850 Alabama census of Cherokee County gave their children, Francis (age 6, born in AL), William (age 4, born in AL), and Elizabeth (age 1, born in AL) according to [GANDRUD p.92]. John's eighty year old mother, Sarah (born in VA), was living with them in 1850.
[SG p. 128 and the Family Puzzlers article mentioned above] indicates that John married Elizabeth Tillison, daughter of Spenser Tillison, in 1844.
Additional information about John's family is found in [JD] where it is stated that John was born 3/15/1815 and his wife Elizabeth was born May, 1829. John got around! He was born in Georgia, lived most of his life in Northern Alabama, moved to Mississippi shortly after the Civil War (as evidenced by the birthplace of his children), and he died in Mississippi. Near the end of John's life he lived in Toccopola, Mississippi where he taught in the high school and Elizabeth ran a boarding house. Their children are listed in [JD]
Francis Marion, William Adam, John Anderson, Molly E., and Edythe Josephine.
Francis Marion married Martha Ann Sharp (see below for more information on my great grandfather). William Adam married Charlotte Lewis and this is the line of central focus in JD?s short note. John Anderson married Sarah Sharp, Molly E. married John Willie Sharp, and Edythe Josephine married William Mark Harding. No dates are given on these individuals.
Both John Garner and his son Francis Marion Garner served during the Civil War. According to Civil War pension records [WILTSHIRE p. 312] they were from Lafayette County, Mississippi and served in the 31st Alabama infantry. A pension was given to Elizabeth, whose husband was John A. Garner, in 1900. A pension was given to F. M. Garner who served in the 31st Alabama and was from Lafayette County, Mississippi in 1916 and his widow, M. A. Garner was pensioned in 1917 and again in 1924. She was listed as living in Lafayette County both in 1917 and in 1924. Both F. M. Garner and J. A. Garner are listed as Confederate soldiers serving in the AL 31st infantry, company A in [HEWETT p.218 and p. 219]. According to [CRUTE p. 23] the AL 31st infantry was organized in Talladega, AL in April, 1862. It recruited in several counties including Cherokee County, the residence of John and Francis Marion Garner. The 31st saw action at Cumberland Gap, Tazewell and was captured during the famous long siege of Vicksburg. It was reorganized and saw action at Chattanooga and Atlanta. Colonel Daniel R. Hundley, Lieutenant Colonel Thomas M. Arrington, and Major George W. Mattison commanded the 31st. A more detailed accounting of the 31st whereabouts is listed in [SIFAKIS p. 99] and [CMH, p. 154-156].
POST CIVIL WAR AND THE TWENTIETH CENTURY
According to family Bible records [AGUD], John A. Garner dates were: b. 3/15/1815- d. c1870, in agreement with the above sources. He is buried in the Pontocola Cemetery which is between Pontotoc and Toccopola, Mississippi. These are in Lafayette County near Oxford, Mississippi. Confirming the above, the Bible records state that John moved from Georgia to Alabama before coming to Mississippi. Elizabeth Garner, his wife, was originally Elizabeth Tillison, b. 5/18/1829 in Tennessee. Her father may have been born in Kentucky and her mother may have been born in North Carolina. Elizabeth was living in Lafayette County in 1900 with her son-in-law J. W. Sharp.
All the children of John A. Garner were born in Alabama except the last one who was born in Mississippi. From these Bible records we have for John's children (which is consistent with [JD]),
Francis Marion (b. 7/5/1845 Gadsden, AL- d. 12/14/1916 in Webb cemetery near Tula, MS and see below); William Adam "Add" Garner (b. 8/18/1847 in Gadsden, AL-d.?) married 6/27/1868 Charlotte Lewis; John Anderson (b.1858 in AL-d.?) married 4/4/1880 Sarah Sharp; Molly E. (b. 1861 in AL-d. 1945 in Tula Cemetry, MS) married 12/12/1878 John Willie Sharp; and Edythe Josephine (b. 9/1867 in MS- d. 1923/4 in MS) married 1890 William Mark Harding.
The rest of the material in this genealogy is from the AGUD family Bible or from my own knowledge of my immediate family. My great grandfather was Francis Marion Garner (listed above) who married (11/14/1876, see the copy of the certificate in the appendix) in Huntsville, Alabama Martha Ann Sharp (b. 9/18/1857 in Huntsville, Alabama-d?). Martha Ann was the daughter of John Sharp and Martha Ann Ward. Francis Marion Garner was wounded in the Civil War and as already noted, he served with his father in the AL 31st infantry.
Francis Marion and Martha Ann Sharp had issue: Mona who never married, Marion Harlan (see below), Wiley who married Bess Marchbank, James Luther (b. 6/8/1882-d. 11/12/04) , red headed, who never married and died at age 22, and Dana who married Halley? .
My grandfather, Marion Harlan Garner (b. 3/9/1880 in Oxford, MS- d. 7/1/1967 in Blytheville, Arkansas) was a farmer. He married 11/19/1906 in Tula, Mississippi Fannie Montez Marchbank (b. 11/15/1889 in Sulligent, Alabama-d. 5/21/1944 in Charter Oak, Missouri). Marion Harlan and Fannie Montez lived in Potlocna, Mississippi (5 miles SE of Oxford) but left Yocona, Mississippi in September, 1922 to move to Arkansas, near Blytheville. A colorful account of this journey was written by my Aunt Gene Garner, see APPENDIX II.
Fannie Montez Marchbank's parents were John Erwin Marchbank (b. 12/12/1851 in Crews, Alabama-d.?) and Susan Emmaline May (b.6/2/1854 in Birmingham, Alabama-d.?) and they married in 1888 in Sulligent, AL. John Erwin Marchbank's mother was Emiline Bankhead (b. 1832 in AL) who was a cousin of some sort to Tallulah Bankhead, the actress from Alabama.. John Erwin's father was Baily Marchbank (b.1831 in AL ) who married Emiline in 1850 in Crews, AL.
Tallulah was the granddaughter of the US Senator , John Hollis Bankhead from northern Alabama, and she was the daughter of the AL US Congressman, William Brockmon Bankhead. A copy of Fannie Montez's obituary is given in APPENDIX III.
Marion Harlan Garner and Fannie Montez Marchbank had issue: Cecil (b. 8/13/1907-d. 1968) married Ollie Mae Lusk; Leonard Garner (b. 1909-d. 1966) married Eleanor ?; Imogene(b. 11/26/1911) married Russell Gaines (b.?-d. 1968); James Luther (see below); Duke (b. 8/13/1915) married Sue Dison (b. 11/16/1917-d. 12/19/1973); Keith (b. 8/31/1919-d. 1967) married Willie Pearcy; Ruby (b. 11/16/1917) married Speedy Walden; Tull (b. 5/20/1921) married Mable Vannoy; and Sammy (b. 1931) married Sonnie Poe. Marion Harlan and some of the family moved from Blytheville, Arkansas in 1943 to pursue better farming land in Charter Oak, Missouri (in the "boothill").
My father, James Luther Garner (b. 6/25/1913 in Oxford, Mississippi-d. 7/4/1970 in Vermilion, Ohio) married my mother, Sunshine Mick (b. 3/24/1916 in Blytheville, Arkansas) in 1932 in Blytheville, Arkansas. James Luther was a farmer and truck driver. In 1959 the immediate family of James Luther moved with him to Vermilion in northeastern Ohio.
James Luther Garner and Sunshine Mick had issue: Joseph Marion, Patricia Ann, Sandra Lou, Lelia Montez, Connie Jay, and James Luther Garner
Joseph Marion (b. 7/24/1935 in Arkansas) married Pat Phillips (b. 2/1939) and had issue: Linda Renee (b. 9/3/1958) who married Ray Born, Jeannie (b. 12/26/1959) who married Ed Lampe, Joseph (b. 6/1/1961 in Ohio) who married ?, and Elizabeth (b. 6/20/1963 in Ohio) who married ?.
Patricia Ann (b. 3/18/1939 in Arkansas) married Loren Leonberger and had issue: Vincent Bruce Leonberger (b. 12/28/1955 in Missouri) who married Roberta ? and Timothy Scott Leonberger (b. 9/3/1960 in Missouri), single.
Sandra Lou (b. 5/31/1941 in Missouri- d. Jan., 1998 in Ohio) married Larry Lawson then Mark Nemeth. Her children are: Gordon Lawson (b. 9/30/1959 in Missouri) who married Tonya ?, Mark Nemeth (b. 10/12/1960 in Ohio) who married ?, Walter Scott Nemeth (b. 12/20/1964 in Ohio) who married Renee Lugley, and Gena Nemeth (b. 9/23/1970 in Ohio) who married ?.
Lelia Montez (b. 7/26/1944 in Missouri-d. 10/9/1977 in Vermilion, Ohio) married Steve Brixie (b.8-03-1939 in Arkansas) and had issue: Steven Harlan Brixie (b. 10/31/1961) who married Penny Burquset, Richard Marshall Brixie (b. 6/3/1963),m Karen Gilbreth(b. 2-2-1968), and Debra Brixie (b. 12/13/1965) who marriedRandy Randolph.
Connie Jay (b. 12/18/1952 in Missouri) married Glenn Graves, then William Bettcher, and then Greg Goldcamp. Her children are: Jennifer Graves (b. 4/23/1969 in Amherst, Ohio) and Glenn Shannon Graves II (b. 11/15/1972 in Ohio).
James Luther Garner (b. 7/27/1955 in Poplar Bluff, Missouri) married 6/1/1991 in Harrisonburg, Virginia Carol Jean Murphey (b. 7/5/1956 in Warrenton, Virginia) and had issue: Katherine Murphey Garner (b. 7/2/1993 in Peoria, Illinois) and Anne Randolph Garner (b. 5/10/1996 in Jacksonville, Florida). James is a physics professor at the University of North Florida in Jacksonville and Carol is a nurse practitioner. James received a Ph.D. in physics from Ohio State University and Carol received a Ed.D. from the University of North Carolina.
AGUD Family Bible records of my Aunt Gene and Uncle Duke Garner (unpublished).
BALLAGH White Servitude in the Colony of Virginia , James Curtis Ballagh (Burt Franklin, New York, 1895, reprinted 1969).
BEAN The Peopling of Virginia, R. Bennett Bean (Chapman&Grimes, Boston, 1938).
BOORSTIN The Americans: The Colonial Experience, Daniel J. Boorstin (Vintage Books, New York, 1958). This is an excellent source for background material about the colonists both in Virginia and in Plymouth.
BRUMGAUGH Revolutionary War Records Vol. I, Virginia (Washington D.C., 1936).
BRUMBAUGH Revolutionary War Records, Vol. I, Virginia, George Marcus Brumbaugh (Lancaster Press, Lancaster, PA, 1936).
BULLETIN OF THE NORTHUMBERLAND COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY (VOL. XXXV, 1998).
CHAPPELEAR Families of Virginia, George Warren Chappelear (Shenandoah Press, 1932).
CHEROKEE Cherokee County History 1836-1956 Vol I (Centre, Alabama).
CMH Confederate Military History Extended Edition (Broadfoot Publishing Co., Wilmington, NC, 1987).
CRESS Dunkin-Reid and Garner-McGraw-Mobley Families of South Carolina, Georgia, and Alabama, Dean Smith Cress (Athens, Georgia, c1988).
CRUTE Units of the Confederate States Army, Joseph H. Crute, Jr. (Old Soldiers Books, Gaithersburg, MD, 1987).
DABNEY Virginia, The New Dominion, Virginius Dabney (University Press of Virginia, Charlottesville, 1971).
DAR1 DAR Patriot Index, Vol. II, Washington, 1979.
DAR2 DAR Patriot Index Centennial Edition Part II, Washington, 1990.
F Fauquier County, Virginia 1759-1959 (Fauquier County Bicentennial Committee, Warrenton, Virginia, 1959).
FILBY Passenger and Immigration Lists Index, P. William Filby (First Edition,Volume 1, Gale Research Company, Detroit, Michigan, 1982/3).
GARDINER by Thomas Richard Gardiner, (1991). This two-volume geneaology was found in the St. Marys Historical Society Museum in Leanardtown, MD.
GANDRUD Alabama Soldiers (Revolution, War of 1812, and Indian Wars) Vol. 8, Pauline Jones Gandrud (NCR, 1984).
GK Garner-Keene Families of Northern Neck of Virginia, Ruth Ritchie and Sudie Rucker Wood (1952, Charlottesville, Virginia).
GREER 1623-1666 Early Virginia Immigrants, George Cabell Greer (Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, 1960).
GWATHMEY Historical Register of Virginians in the Revolution, John H. Gwathmey (Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, 1987).
HEWETT The Roster of Confederate Soldiers 1861-1865, Janet B. Hewett (Broadfoot Publishing Company, Wilmington, NC, 1996).
HISTORICAL ATLAS OF WESTMORELAND COUNTY by Eaton , Dietz Press, Richmond, 1942.
HOTTEN The Original Lists of Persons of Quality, John Camden Hotten (Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, 1962).
JD F197 Garner Family in The Lafayette County Heritage, Janie Dooley (Oxford, Mississippi, 1986).
I found this in the "Garner Library" at Ole Miss.
JULICH Roster of Revolutionary Soldiers and Patriots in Alabama, Louise Milam Julich (Alabama Society of DAR, 1979).
MCGAHA Garner-Boggs and Related Families, Stanley A. McGaha.
MEYER Adventures of Purse and Person VIRGINIA 1607-1624/5, Virginia M. Meyer and John Frederick Dorman (Order of First Families of Virginia, 1987, 3rd Edition).
NORRIS Westmoreland County Virginia, Ed. Walter Biscoe Norris, Jr. (Westmoreland County Board of Supervisors, Montross, VA, 1983).
NUGENT Cavaliers and Pioneers, Abstracts of Virginia Land Patents and Grants, 1623-1666, Nell Marion Nugent (Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, 1969) Vol. One. This provides a list of those who came to Virginia with John Garner
OWEN Revolutionary Soldiers in Alabama, Thomas W. Owen (Brown Printing Co., Montgomery, Alabama).
REV Virginia Revolutionary War State Pensions, (Virginia Genealogical Society, Special Publication No. 7, 1960).
RITCHIE Genealogy of Some East Tennessee Families of the Early Nineteenth Century, Ruth Ritchie (in the University of Virginia Archives).
ROBINSON Land Grants In Virginia 1607-1699 , W. Stitt Robinson, Jr. (VA 350th Anniversary
Celebration Committee, Williamsburg, VA 1957).
SEROW The Population of Virginia: Past, Present, and Future, William J. Serow (University Press of Virginia, Charlottesville, 1978).
SG Southern Garners, Sam Garner, MD (1978, Rome, Georgia, second edition, 1998).
SIFAKIS Compendium of Confederate Armies: Alabama, Stewart Sifakis (Facts on File, New York, 1992).
SKORDAS The Early Settlers of Maryland, Gust Skordas (Geneaological Publishing Co., 1979).
SMD The Society of Mayflower Descendants
STEWART Gone to Georgia, William C. Stewart (National Genealogical Society, Washington, D.C.,1965).
TQH Tyler?s Quarterly Historical and Genealogical Magazine, Lyon G. Tyler, ED. (Vol IV, No.3, 1923).
VA LINE A List of Non-Commissioned Officers and Soldiers of the VA Line (Doc. No. 44, Richmond 1835).
VIRKUS The Compendium of American Genealogy, Frederick Adams Virkus, Ed., (The Virkus Company, Chicago, 1930) Vol. IV.
WERTENBAKER The Planters of Colonial Virginia, Thomas Jefferson Wertenbaker (Princeton University Press, 1922).
WHITE Genealogical Abstracts of Revolutionary War Pension Files, Virgil D. White, Vol. II:F-M (National Historical Publishing Company, Waynesboro, Tennessee, 1991).
WILTSHIRE Mississippi Department of Archives and History, Betty C. Wiltshire (Pioneer Publishing Co., Carrollton, Mississippi).
WRIGHT The First Gentlemen of Virginia, Louis Booker Wright (Huntington Library, San Marino, California, 1940).
APPENDIX I Gadsden Landmark Article from Family Puzzlers, No. 568, 9/7/1978. Photograph of Joseph Garner's tombstone.
APPENDIX II Photograph of the marriage certificate of Francis Marion Garner and Martha Ann Sharp.
APPENDIX III Roster of graves at the Webb Cemetery in "Potlocna" (near Oxford) Mississippi and photographs of Francis Marion Garner?s and his son, James L. Garner's tombstone.
APPENDIX IV Aunt Imogene "Gene" Moore (Garner) Account of the Travel of The Marion Harlan Garner Family From Mississippi to Arkansas in 1922.
APPENDIX V Obituary of Fannie Montez Marchbank.
Prepared by: James Luther Garner, Ph. D.
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