INDENTURED SERVITUDE AND SLAVERY
IN THE FAMILIES OF GUY FINCH AND PETER HOGGINS
By Louis Lehmann, PhD
In March 2017 Janice Lovelace, Ph.D, spoke to the Tacoma Pierce County Genealogical Society on the topic "Did Your Ancestors Own Slaves?" Her excellent presentation stimulated me to explore how some of my ancestral relatives had been influenced by indentured servitude and slavery, I focused on two connected lines : (1) The family of Guy Finch (died 1688), especially the descendants of his daughter, Elizabeth Finch (1687 - aft 1776) , and her first husband, William Elder (died 1714) , most of whom settled in Frederick County, Maryland; and (2) The family of Elizabeth Finch's third husband, Peter Hoggins (1692-1775), especially the descendants of his son, Peter Hoggins (1726-1798), most of whom settled in Prince George's County and Montgomery County, Maryland. Unfortunately circumstances have limited my research to digitized on-line materials. Further research of other records would be most welcome.
THE FAMILY OF GUY FINCH
Guy Finch, son of John Finch, was born 18 August 1655 at Bevington, a Berkeley Parish village where his sister, Elizabeth, was also born on 16 December 1657. No other information about John or Elizabeth has emerged but assuming that John Finch lived in Bevington throughout the English Civil War (1641-1652), less than twenty miles from Gloucester and less than three miles from Berkeley Castle, he could have been affected in many ways. It is unclear whether he, like many people, disliked King Charles but he may well have been reluctant to get involved with the war. Whether he favored one side or the other, he must have been concerned on August 8, 1643 when King Charles and a force of infantry and artillery were quartered at nearby Berkeley Castle en route to the siege of the Parliamentarians at Gloucester. A hundred men from the Castle's garrison joined that force. Some time after the Sept 5 end of the siege, more than two hundred Parliamentarian troops marched before the Royalist garrison within the castle. During the next year John Finch may well have been worried by further wartime activities. Rebels from Gloucester appeared at Berkelely Castle in 1644 demanding that the garrison surrender. (Royalists claimed that the garrison killed a hundred rebels). Parliamentarian troops carried off some of the Castle's livestock and "miserably plundered" the town of Berkeley. But John Finch must have been most distressed by more events in 1645. The Castle was besieged by more than a thousand Parliamentarians. There were rumors that it might be burned down. And John Finch's residence may or may not have been among the many houses in the vicinity of the Castle that were plundered, burned, and destroyed. Berkeley Castle surrendered on Sept 26, 1645. King Charles I was executed in 1649. Two years later the war ended in victory for the Parliamentarians. But ordinary people suffered throughout the war and its aftermath, enduring oppressive taxation; compulsory quartering of soldiers in their homes; plundering of their possessions, theft of their food, disturbances of trade, vandalizing of their churches, abandonment of fields, broken bridges, damaged roads, and destruction of property.
John Finch and his family may have been among the many people in Gloucestershire whose suffering extended throughout the repressive Parliamentarian rule and into the 1660s after the restoration of King Charles II. A hearth tax, especially burdensome on poor people, was experienced as an intrusion into homes. Resentments erupted into conflicts. Twenty-four men around Berkeley and Gloucester were arrested for abusing the tax collector. Householder and collectors at Berkeley came to blows in 1666 when Guy Finch was just eleven. Collectors were said to have feared for their lives. Two years earlier young Guy Finch might have seen his father and/or some of their neighbors among the men ordered to come with spades and pickaxes to Berkeley Castle. Perhaps fearing another rebellion, men were conscripted from parishes within six miles of Berkeley to assist soldiers in a partial demolition of the Castle so that it could not be used as a defense. It was alleged that occupying soldiers had damaged some of the Castle's possessions, including ancient charters "torn for the sake of their silk strings" but it was also alleged that some of the country people may have done so. Whether John Finch could have been involved with such activities can only be a matter for conjecture. If he had engaged in any unlawful behavior, he would have been subject to a high fine in contrast to a comparatively low rent that he may have been assessed in Bevington.
Continuing hardships may have contributed to the eventual emigration of John Finch's son, Guy, who was transported in 1674 to Maryland on the "Dover, probably as an indentured servant. (At least three out of every four immigrants to seventeenth century Maryland came as indentured servants.) If he arrived in that status, Guy Finch, then nineteen years old, could have owed four or five years of service , perhaps in exchange for passage, room, and board. His contract, under the British Crown's system of "headright" awards to indentured servants, might have included "at least 25 acres of land, a year's worth of corn, arms, a cow and new clothes." His future prospects may have been good but his first experiences in Maryland would have been greatly influenced by how he was treated by his master. In many instances indentured servants were not treated much better than slaves. A 1715 law intended to limit abuse of servant but was so poorly worded that it did not provide much protection. A master could still beat a servant with ten or less lashes. Beyond that, his situation could be reviewed by a magistrate who could authorize a whipping of up to thirty-nine lashes. In general, extreme abuse was difficult to define and many servants suffered abuse which was severe but not viewed by the authorities as excessive. So a master could beat a servant as much as he thought that the authorities would allow. Some observers reported that masters were generally "cruel, barbarous, and unmerciful."
Guy Finch could have been working in the tobacco fields, perhaps alongside some slaves. Of course his time-limited experience as an indentured servant would have been far different from the lifetime servitude of slaves. . After completing his servitude, maybe acquiring land under the headright system, he settled near Upper Marlborough, a community destined to become a major hub of slave trading. Probably accumulating money by working in the tobacco fields, he purchased "Beal's Goodwill in 1681. Three years later he bought "Woodbridge" from Col. Henry Darnall, a prominent landowner and slave-owner in the area. That property became the home plantation for Guy and his wife, Rebecca (____) Finch, and their two daughters, Mary (born about 1685) and Elizabeth (born about 1687).
"Woodbridge" is said to have included a 25 foot by 15 foot dwelling, a 30 foot tobacco house, a 10 foot milk house, 10 peach trees, 7 apple trees, and ten acres of cleared and fenced land. Property that was probably "Beal's Goodwill" was described in 1763 by the "Maryland Gazette, July 14" as "A valuable tract of land whereon Mr. Charles Beavan, deceased, lately dwelt, within two miles of Upper-Marlborough Town containing 263 acres, whereon are two good dwelling houses, a good cellar, with a lodging room over it, two good tobacco houses, a good corn house, with stable underneath, a good kitchen, several out houses, two large orchards, and a parcel of fine meadow ground. " (Charles Beaven married first to Guy Finch's oldest daughter, Mary, who pre-deceased him.) "Beal's Goodwill" and "Woodbridge" were advertised as attractive plantations but the area was not so very peaceful. Frontier settlers still feared Indians, a problem often reported by the "Maryland Gazette" since its beginning in 1745. And slavery was a continuing problem. In that same edition of the" Maryland Gazette," that described "Beal's Goodwill, there are three advertisements to sell slaves: (1) "a negro wench that can cook and do all sorts of housework," (2) "a lusty. likely, young negro man who has been in the country about twelve months, which has well inured him to the climate, has likewise had the small pox," and (3) "two young negro men, one of whom is a good tight cooper the other active and strong and fit for plantation business." Two other advertisements sought to capture runaway slaves. News items in that edition also reported four men killed by Indians and several plantations being "cut off" by Indians. Nevertheless Rebecca remained at Woodbridge with her two little daughters after Guy Finch died intestate in 1688. "Beal's Goodwill" was divided equally between Mary and Elizabeth.
Nothing in Guy Finch's estate inventory indicated that he owned any slaves but his daughter, Mary, may have had slaves in her household when she was married to Charles Beavans. After Mary's death, Charles married (2) Rebecca Miles and in 1761 he bequeathed three slaves to their sons, Richard and Charles. Mary Finch Beavans died sometime after relinquishing dower rights in a 1738 land transaction. If she and her husband, Charles, were living on the "Beals Goodwill" plantation in 1739, they and many others in Prince George's County were probably alarmed and perhaps terrified by the discovery that slaves at the nearby Poplar Neck plantation had been planning a slave rebellion. The leader of the plot was Jack Ransom, a slave on the Poplar Neck Plantation, just a few miles from "Beals Goodwill." Reports of the conspiracy , probably exaggerated, were said to have involved two hundred slaves, with plans to kill their masters’ families as they slept. ...The slaves reportedly planned to seize arms and horses from plantations and to then ...." disperse in several bodies over the Town and Cutt the throats of Men, Women, and Children….” Ransom expected other slaves to join the revolt, eventually establishing a separate government. However the plot was discovered and suppressed when a slave informed his master. In the subsequent trials, five slaves were indited and Jack Ransom was hanged. Despite the probable exaggeration of the conspiracy plans, slaveholders clearly feared a slave uprising. Governor Ogle ordered authorities to take actions ......" to prevent the Tumultuous meeting of Slaves… and to Apprehend all such Slaves as shall be found wandering who cannot give good and Satisfactory Account of themselves….” Local militias were rapidly organized as arms and ammunition were distributed. Governor Ogle asserted that if the conspirators had been successful, ..."We should have been put to the cruel necessity of defending Our own Lives at the Expense of many of their, to the Entire Ruin of Numbers of particular Families, and perhaps of the Province in General.” Apparently believing that the colony had averted total destruction, Oglle subsequently proposed a bill to raise funds to defend the province against its slaves. Delegates in both the Upper House and Lower House spoke of their slaves as enemies. emphasizing the need for ..." Our common Security as well against rebellious Designs of Negroes" Pairing religious discrimination with racial discrimination, The Lower House also spoke of Maryland's capacity to defend itself against "Roman Catholics, Negroes, and any other Enemies…”
Mary's sister, Elizabeth, and her third husband, Peter Hoggins, may have then been living at the "Woodbridge" plantation, which was also close to Poplar Neck. If so, they would have been similarly alarmed by the news about the planned slave rebellion. Elizabeth had married Peter Hoggins sometime after the 1726 death of her second husband, Solomon Stimton whom Elizabeth had married after her first husband, William Elder, died in 1714. This William Elder (died 1714) has not been identified as a slave owner. However many of his descendants owned slaves, most of them in Frederick County, Maryland. His son, William Elder (1707-1775) , had twelve children, seven of whom were slave owners. In his will William Elder (1707-1775) bequeathed to his second wife (Jacoba Clementina Livers Elder) ......."all my Negroes during her widowhood except those that shall be herein after mentioned as bequeathed to others. " He also bequeathed "to my beloved daughter Anne Spalding one negro girl named Cate," In 1790 his widow, Jacoba Clementina, headed a household which included six slaves. (All "Elder" slave owners described in this article were in Frederick County unless stated otherwise.)
William Elder (1729-1804) , the oldest of the twelve children of William Elder (1707-1775), is one of three men of that name on the 1790 census in Frederick, Maryland. He may have had one or two slaves. His son-in-law, John Harris (married to Mary Elder), listed no slaves in 1820 but did list one "free colored person"......Nathaniel Elder (1773-1861), son of Wm Elder (1729-1804) owned five slaves in 1820 and one slave in 1830. He and .Lewis Elder, son of Aloysius Elder; were the only slaveholders named Elder on the 1830 census in Frederick county, Maryland. Lewis listed two slaves..... .Mary Jane Elder, the second wife of Aloysius Elder, was the only slaveholder named Elder in the 1840 Frederick, Maryland census. She reported one slave in her household.
... Charles Elder (1730-1804), the second of the twelve children, listed seven slaves in 1790 and three slaves in 1800. The third son, Guy Elder, listed two slaves in 1790. Mary Elder Lilly, the fifth child of William Elder (1707-1775), in her 1795 will, bequeathed to her son Samuel Lilly "one negro man named Jack, one negro named Harry and one negro woman named Hannah." ..When Mary Elder Lilly's son, Samuel Lilly, died in 1820 he willed everything to his wife, Belinda, including eight slaves: "1 negro man Jack, 1 negro woman Nelly, 1 negro woman Mealy, 1 negro David, 1 negro boy George, 1 negro boy Lewis, 1 negro boy John, 1 negro girl Harriet." ........ Francis Elder,the sixth child and the oldest of the seven children that William Elder (1707-1775) had by his second wife, Jacoba Clementina Livers Elder, listed one slave on the 1790 census and one slave on the 1800 census. Arnold Elder, the eighth child (and third by Jacoba), Arnold Elder listed seven slaves in 1790 and eleven slaves in 1800. The ninth child (and fourth by Jacoba), Anne Elder Spalding, inherited one slave("Cate") from her father. Thomas Elder, the tenth child (and fifth by Jacoba) listed three slaves on the 1790 census in Frederick, Maryland. In Kentucky, he listed three slaves in 1810 and five slaves in 1830. The twelfth child (and seventh by Jacoba) was Aloysius Elder who listed three slaves in 1800 and two slaves in 1820. Lewis Elder, son of Aloysius, owned an eight year old female slave in 1850. He is the only slaveholder named Elder on the 1850 Frederic County Slave Census. There is also only one slaveholder named Elder on the 1860 Frederick County Slave Census,. He is "Jno Elder" whom I have not connected with any of other slaveholders named Elder.
The number of slaveholders named "Elder" on Frederick county census records decreased from 1790 when ten Elder slaveholders owned a total of 34 slaves to1840 when one Elder slaveholder (Mary Jane Elder) owned one slave. In 1800 eight Elder slaveholders owned a total of 29 slaves in Frederick county. In 1810 six Elder slaveholders owned a total of 21 slaves. In 1820 six Elder slaveholders owned a total of 12 slaves in Frederick county. In 1830 two Elder slaveholders owned a total of three slaves.
THE FAMILY OF PETER HOGGINS
Peter Hoggins - After the death of her husband, William Elder, in 1714, Elizabeth (Finch) Elder next married Solomon Stinton whose 1727 estate included three slaves; a man, a woman, and a girl. After Solomon's death she married Peter Hoggins (1692-1775). When he died, she inherited his slave "Phillis. During their marriage Peter Hoggins was not only a slave owner but he also lost a lawsuit filed against him by Robert Perle, a well-known manumitted son of a slave woman... Peter Hoggins was sued because he was the administrator of the estate of Gunder Erickson who died intestate. ....." Perle sought 4246 pounds of tobacco or £28.5.0 current money for services he had rendered to Erickson. The record shows that Perle had built a small house, erected fences, repaired older buildings, sold foodstuffs, cared for livestock, and performed various other tasks on Erickson's behalf. The scope of work suggests that Perle may have actually been directing a labor force which performed the work" Perle was successful in his claims against Peter Hoggins, administrator of the Gunder Erickson estate as the Provincial Court in August, 1730, awarded Perle " full damages plus costs."
After the death of her third husband, Peter Hoggins (1692-1775), Elizabeth became part of the household of her son, Peter Hoggins (1726-1798. She is listed there in Maryland's 1776 Colonial Census. The household also included five slave children,by name; Tom - 12, David - 3, Phillis - 11 (probably the "Phillis" willed to Elizabeth by her husband), Rose - 3. and Charity - 1.
Unfortunately, as is the case with so many ante-bellum slave references, nothing more is known about the lives of any of the five child slaves in the 1776 household of .Peter Hoggins (1726-1798). It is known that three of Peter's children; Solomon, William, and Richard; all owned slaves. Solomon Hoggins (1767-1845) owned six slaves in 1830 after he moved to Bourbon county, Kentucky. In Montgomery county, Maryland, William Hoggins (1766-1803) owned one slave in 1800 and Richard Hoggins (1760-1815) owned seven slaves in 1799, five slaves in 1810, and at least two slaves at the time of his death in 1815. In 1800 he placed the following advertisement in the Dec 20 edition of the "Federal Gazette:" "Twenty Dollars Reward - Ran away from the subscriber of the 7th of October, a likely negro woman, named 'Darkey', about 5 feet 5 inches high, 25 years of age, had a pleasing countenance, a bold lively walk, carries herself very upright, her head pretty much back, a smooth tongue, able to give an answer to any civil question, her dress unknown, as she has taken several with her, made in the fashion. It is supposed the will pass as a free woman with a pass, calls herself a good cook, and is handy almost at anything. She was apprehended on Wednesday the 8th of October, by Mr. Proverb Butt, brought before, and committed to gaol by John L. Summers, esquire, and broke gail on Friday, the 10th, following.-- Any person who takes up the said woman, and secures her so that I get her again, shall receive the above reward and all reasonable expenses. Richard Hoggins, Montgomery county, Seneca, near Medley tavern, November 14".
Two of the children of Richard Hoggins (1760-1815) owned slaves. When he died in 1815, his wife, Ann, and his daughter, Milliann, were co-administratrixes of his estate. By 1825 Ann had died and Milliann was selling two slaves, "Aich" and "Tom" to her brother, Richard Hoggins (died 1846,) Milliann apparently never married as she was at least eighty years old in 1840 when she was the head of her household at Clarksburg in Montgomery County, Maryland. She was the only white person in that household which included ten slaves...... Milliann had actually written her will in 1839, giving to her nephew, Lloyd Jones, four slaves; "Bill", "Sarah," and their two youngest children, a boy and a girl. To Thomas Harwood, son of Dr. Harwood, she gave "Eliza" and "Lewis." To Henrietta Harwood, she gave her "negro girl Henry". And to Eleanor Sona, she gave her "negro girl named Mary". But Milliann was still alive on 9 Jan 1841 when she changed her mind, withdrawing the bequest of "negro Eliza" from Thomas Harwood, withdrawing the bequest of "Henry" from Henrietta Harwood, and withdrawing the bequest of "Mary" from Elenor Sona." Richard Hoggins (died 1846) owned four slaves in 1820 at Frederick, Maryland, owned six slaves in 1830 at Frederick, owned four slaves in 1840 at Frederick.. In 1825, he purchased two slaves, "Aich" and "Tom" from the estate of his father, Richard Hoggins (1760-1815), administered by his sister, MIlliann Hoggins. When the younger Richard Hoggins died in 1846, his gave to all of his slaves "the liberty to buy themselves at six cents each", specifically naming "my slave woman Hetty Waters as she calls herself," my slave woman Julia An Waters as she calls herself," my slave woman Mary Edith as she calls herself," "my slave woman George An Waters as she calls herself," and "my slave child Margret Waters as she calls herself,"
The slaves named in the will of Richard Hoggins (died 1846) are the only ones that I could research. Hetty Waters , age 45, is listed on the 1850 Fredericktown census with Margaret Waters, age 6 (appears to be Richard Hoggins's "slave child") and Mary Waters, age 4 (possibly born after the 1846 death of Richard Hoggins, perhaps another child of Richard??). The will of Richard Hoggins (died 1846) stipulated....."After payment of funeral expenses and ..." twenty dollars to be given to my executor extra and then the balance to be divided between my slave woman Hetty Waters and the Rev. Mr. Lily for the use of Saint Johns Church, Fredericktown, share and share alike, but the moity for Hetty to be placed at interest and she only to draw the interest annually during her natural life, and after her death,the said moity share, to be equally divided among her present daughters, who shall be then living."...... I give to Hetty Waters all my household and kitchen furniture and all my farming utinsels during her life and at her death to be equally divided among her daughters then living." Margaret Waters, mulatto, is also on the 1860 Frederick census at age 16 in a household with Jane Turner, 42, Rebecca Turner, 40, and Mary Diggs, 10, mulatto. (A Margaret Waters is listed in the Frederick Will Index, July 17, 1875.) No further records about "Mary Waters. "George Anna Waters" and "Julia Waters" had freedom certificates by August 11, 1860. Both are listed on the 1860 Frederick census in a household with Harriet (or Hamill?) Ross, age 60, and Robert Ford, age 12. On the 1850 Fredericktown census, Julia Waters, age 28, is a servant residing at "St. John's Literary Institution, " presumably connected with the St. John's church mentioned in Richard Hoggins' 1846 will. On 1880 Frederick Census, Julia Waters, age 60, is in a household with Rosie Lee, age 9, adopted. In 1900 Julia Waters, age 70, is the only one in her Frederic, Maryland, household.
SOURCES AND NOTES
1. Guy Finch was christened 18 Aug 1655 as son of John Finch in Berkeley, Gloucester, England. (Sources: FHL Film No. 0973257 Item 5....AmericanAncestors - "England: Births and Christenings, 1538-1975" ; The Parish Register of Berkeley, Gloucestershire 1653-1677 https://books.google.com Page 4 August 18 "Guy the sonne of John Finch of Bevington 1655") ....The births of Guy and Elizabeth Finch are the only Finch births listed in "The Parish Register of Berkeley, Gloucestershire 1653 - 1677. I have not yet been able to examine any other Berkeley Parish records. I did examine the Bishops Transcripts for Berkeley from 1625 through 1680 (Film 008005383) The births of Guy and Elizabeth Finch are the only Finch births listed in "The Parish Register of Berkeley, Gloucestershire 1653 - 1677. I have not yet been able to examine any other Berkeley Parish records. I did examine the Bishops Transcripts for Berkeley from 1625 through 1680 (Film 008005383) and found no Finch listings However a number of years are missing within that period, including the birth years of Guy and his sister, Elizabeth.........
2. The unpopularity of King Charles is mentioned in the "English Civil War Timeline", "History on the Net," http://www.historyonthenet.com, and in "The Royalist War Effort 1642 - 1646 Ronald Hutton Routledge, p. 27 https://books.google.com...................................The pain and misery experiences by ordinary people during the war and its aftermath is reviewed by Dr. John Wroughton in "The Civil War in the West;" BBC History - British History in Depth http://www.bbc.co.uk; and by Ann Hughes in "10 great misconceptions of the Civil War," BBC History Magazine. http://www.historyextra.com. Downloaded 3 July 2017................................................The Civil War activities around Berkeley Castle are documented in "Berkeley Manuscripts: Abstracts and Extracts of Smyth's Lives of the Berkeleys, Illustrative of Ancient Manners and the Constitution" by Thomas Dudley Fosbroke J. Nichols, 1821 p 27 - 34 https://books.google.com.................. Reactions to worsening taxations are documented in "Civil War, Interregnum and Restoration in Gloucestershire, 1640-1672" By Andrew Richard Warmington Boydell & Brewer Ltd, 1997 Pages 203-205. https://books.google.com............ "Conscription of men for partial demolition of Berkeley Castle is examined in "Transactions of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society - John Smyth the Younger of North Nibley and His Papers " by R. Howes 2003. Vol 121 pages 218-221. http://www.bgas.org.uk/tbgas_bg/v121/bg121213.pdf. Downloaded 27 June 2017"
3. "Guy Finch immigrated from England to Maryland in 1674 on board the ship Dover"........(Source: Gilland, Steve. "Early Families of Frederic County, Maryland and Adams County, Pennsylvania, p 12) .......His arrival on March 17, 1764 is also noted in "U.S. and Canada, Passenger and Immigration Lists Index, 1500s-1900s" Ancestry.com....Some family trees assert that Guy Finch was with 64 other passengers on the Dover.......(Source: ."William Merimee and His Descendants 1792-1994" (Thomas Merimee p. 32 as per lorettaelizabeth24. Ancestry.com. Public Family Trees) .....
4. The nature of Guy Finch's transportation is not known. Nothing suggests that he was a transported convict, .. ..David Terry describes indentured servitude as "often cruel and sometimes brutal........After several years of working for someone else, the person would receive freedom and payment, usually a new suit of clothes, farm tools such as an axe or hoe, and perhaps a supply of food products like corn, and the rights to some land. More than three-quarters of the people who came to Maryland in the 17th century came as indentured servants.......there are many examples of servants being cheated, over-worked, and physically abused by their masters. In fact, the harsh conditions on plantations caused many indentured servants to run away from their masters? farms........ As time went on and news of its harsh realities reached back to England it became more difficult to get people to volunteer to become indentured servants." (Source: "Slavery Comes to Early Maryland: A Brief Look" by David Taft Terry, Ph.D Research Specialist in the History of Slavery at the Maryland State Archives http://mdroots.thinkport.org/interactives/slaverytimeline/slavery.pdf)...........Before 1715 there was no law limiting what a master could do with his servant. And the 1715 law was so poorly worded that it provided little if any protection. Extreme abuse was so difficult to define that masters could seriously abuse servants with little risk of transgressing the law. Whipping a servant with ten or fewer lashes was usually not questioned and masters could request lawful authorization for up to thirty-nine lashes if they thought it was warranted. (Source: Maryland State Archives. Slavery Commission, Volume 822 http://aomol.msa.maryland.gov ; C. Ashley Ellefson. "The Private Punishment of Servants and Slaves in Eighteenth-Century Maryland, Cortland, NY: 201.) .........Conditions for indentured servant emigrations are discussed by PBS History Detectives. ( http://www.pbs.org/opb/historydetectives/feature/indentured-servants-in-the-us/ ) and in "Indentured Servants During the Colonial Era" Maryland State Archives http://teaching.msa.maryland.....The headright system, which continued until 1683, is discussed in "Origins of Colonial Chesapeake Indentured Servants: American and English Sources By Nathan W. Murphy, AG [This article was originally published in the National Genealogical Society Quarterly, Vol. 93, No. 1 (Mar 2005): 5-24, .] (http://www.pricegen.com/origins-of-colonial-chesapeake) .. Also discussed in Maryland State Archives http://msa.maryland.gov/msa/speccol/sc4300/sc4341/html/intro.html. Continuation of the "headright" system until 1683 is discussed in "Foreword to Supplement to Early Settlers" by Christopher N. Allan ( http://msa.maryland.gov/msa)..........Land ownership by indentured servants is discussed in "Was Your Ancestor an Indentured Servant?" ..... By Doug Phelps, http://pages.suddenlink.net/phelpsdna/Southern_Phelps_Research.
5. Guy Finch may have begun working in the tobacco fields, saving enough money to buy land in Calvert County, 100 acres ("Goodwill") in 1681 and another 118 acres ("Woodbridge") in 1684. Both properties were the part of Calvert County which became part of the newly formed Prince George's county in 1696.. Woodbridge was just a few miles south of Upper Marlboro, a community which would become a prominent location for slave trading........(Source: Gilland, Steve, Early Families of Frederick County, Maryland, Willow Bend Books. 1997 p. 12.).... Upper Marlboro: A stone slave auction block in Upper Marlboro has been preserved.......Source: Photograph - Enoch Pratt Free Library. Maryland Department Photograph Collection: 849 Date - 1935 Date-Digital 2004-11-29. .Digital Maryland...http://collections.digitalmaryland.org/cdm/ref/collection/mdaa/id/343..........
6. A 1985 investigation of plantations in Prince George's County cited two inventories [William Tyler in 1709 and Thomas Holliday in 1703] listed slaves in the early years of the colony......(Source: Maryland - National Capital Park and Planning CommissionAntebellum Plantations in Prince George's County, Maryland p. 92....http://www.mncppcapps.org/planning/publications/pdfs/206/7%20Plantation%20Analysis%2009.pdf)........ "By the early eighteenth century approximately a quarter of the households in Prince George's County owned slaves. By the 1750s that figure may have reached half; it was indeed that high by the time of the American Revolution. Slaveholding, then, was not confined to a small upper class. It was widespread in eighteenth-century Prince George's County." ........(Source: "The Tobacco County - Prince George's County Historical Society" http://www.pghistory.org/PG/PG300/tobacounty.html)
7. The 1696 sale of the 118 acre Woodbridge property from Col. Darnall to Henry Culver was recorded 24 March 1696/7, in Vol A, p 43, Prince George's County Land Records..... By 1684 Guy Finch had probably been married to Rebecca ____, establishing Woodbridge as their modest home plantation which was said to have included a 25 foot by 15 foot dwelling, a 30 foot tobacco house, a 10 foot milk house, 10 peach trees, 7 apple trees, and ten acres of cleared and fenced land. His properties became part of Prince George's county when it was created out of Calvert county in 1695. ...............Woodbridge had been conveyed to Guy Finch by Col. Henry Darnall, a prominent slave owner. Guy Finch died intestate in 1688. Rebecca was the estate administratrix and remained at Woodbridge . By September, 1693 she had married (2) Henry Culver. Both were administrators of the final account of Guy Finch's estate through which the Goodwill plantation was equally divided between Mary and Elizabeth. On June 1, 1694 Rebecca signed over to Henry Darnall her title to Woodbridge. Darnall then signed the land over to Henry Culver....
8. Sometime after the death of Rebecca ( c1712) Henry Culver married (2) Catherine Beavens, a sister of Charles Beavens who had married Mary Finch sometime before 1713 ...(Source: ..KentuckyKindred Genealogy. FamilyStories, Genealogy Ramblings. "Guy Finch, Early Maryland Colonial" by Phyllis Brown Jan 18, 2012; https://kentuckykindredgenealogy.com/2012/01/18/guy-finch-early-maryland-colonial/ ["From William Elder, Ancestors and Descendants" by Mary Louise Donnelly, Self-published by M.L. Donnelly, January 2007. Posted by Phyllis Brown on her blog, ] , http://kentuckykindred.wordpress.com/2012/01/18/guy-finch-early-maryland-colonial/, Downloaded 5 Apr 2017). Description of Charles Beavan's property in 1763, probably "Beal's Goodwill." (Source: Newspapers.com The Maryland Gazette (Annapolis, Maryland)14 Jul 1763, ThuPage 3 "To be sold to the highest bidder on Tuesday the second day of August, if fair, on the premises... A valuable tract of land whereon Mr. Charles Beavan, deceased, lately dwelt, within two miles of Upper-Marlborough Town containing 263 acres, whereon are two good dwelling houses, a good cellar, with a lodging room over it, two good tobacco houses, a good corn house, with stable underneath, a good kitchen, several out houses, two large orchards, and a parcel of fine meadow ground. The title is indisputable. For terms apply to Peter Hoggins. N.B. If any person is inclined to make a private purchase, before the day of sale, either of 163 acres, or the whole, with it improvements, may apply to the said Peter Hoggins, living near the woodyard.")
9. Mary (Finch) Beavan's death is estimated to be after 1738, a year in which she waived her dowry claim in a land transaction in which Charles Beaven "gifted his interest in Hickory Thickett and Bevan Addition to his nephew, Basil Beaven, with tail interests to Basil's four brothers." (Source: Ancestry.com Public Family Trees; "The Charles Beaven II Story" Posted 19 Nov 2015 by glyordy. Downloaded 15 Mar 2017
10. Charles Beavans' 1761 bequests of three slaves to sons, Richard and Charles, is related in Ancestry.com Public Family Trees "The Charles Beaven II Story" Posted 19 Nov 2015 by glyordy. Downloaded 15 Mar 2017
11. Solomon Stinton's ownership of three slaves; a man, a woman, and a girl; is evidenced in his 1727 will and estate inventory; Maryland Register of Wills Records, 1629-1999 Prince George's Wills 1698, Page 162 Image 89 of 335; Maryland Register of Wills Records, 1629-1999 Prince George's Inventory accounts 1726-1729 vol 1 , page 15 Image 27 of 199
12. Bequest by William Elder (1707-1775) of slaves to his second wife (Jacoba Clementina Livers Elder); and his bequest of slave "Cate" to daughter Anne Spalding is reported in FamilySearch.org Maryland Register of Wills Records, 1629-1999 Frederick Wills 1744-1777 vol 1 page 573 Image 303 of 315 In 1790 his widow, Jacoba Clementina, headed a household which included six slaves.
13. Proximity of Poplar Neck to "Beals Goodwill"... The Poplar Neck slave revolt was planned in the plantations on the upper reaches of Piscataway Creek, approximately six miles southwest of Upper Marlboro... (Source: "The Jack Ransom Story - Poplar Neck and the Prince George’s Slave Conspiracy Site" co-authored and contributed by Richard Miller, 1975 HUD http://brandywinemd.com/history/people-of-note-in-the-brandywine-area/jack-ransom-story/ ) ..........The "Beals Goodwill" plantation was within two miles of Upper Marboro according to the 1763 advertisement to sell the land of Charles Beavan deceased. (Source: Newspapers.com; Maryland Gazette, July 14, 1763.)
14. Proximity of "Woodbridge" to Upper Marlboro and to vicinity of the Poplar Neck slave revolt conspiracy: Guy Finch's Woodbridge plantation appears to have existed in the vicinity of present day Croom, Maryland in Prince George's County. In an excerpt from "William Elder, Ancestors and Descendants, by Mary Louise Donnelly" included in a post by Phyllis Brown on her blog, (http://kentuckykindred.wordpress.com/2012/01/18/guy-finch-early-maryland-colonial/.), Guy Finch's widow, Rebecca, signed over to Henry Darnall her title to 118 acres of "Woodbridge." The excerpt asserts that according to Patents, Liber 22, Folio 3, Woodbridge was located "by a road in the freshes of Patuxent in the woods by the road that goes to Mattapuny...." That description corresponds to the general location of a later plantation named Mattaponi in a "Plantation Analysis" (Page 106, Figure 27) by The Maryland-National Capital Park and Planning Commission (http://www.mncppcapps.org/planning/publications/pdfs/206/7%20Plantation%20Analysis%2009.pdf). That "Mattaponi" plantation is also near the West Farm Plantation, also identified in the "Plantation Analysis." Both are in the vicinity of Croom. And the 1820 John Bowie Jr House in Croom ( also known as "Mattaponi," name of the nearest creek) was built on the foundation of an earlier house dating to the 1730s. ...Sources: Wikipedia - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mattaponi_(John_Bowie_Jr._House); and LatLongWiki.com - http://www.latlongwiki.com/?l=38.7417822&g=-76.7669133&title=West%20End%20Farms,%20MD. Croom is about six miles from Upper Marlboro and about eight miles from Brandwine, the general area in which the 1739 Poplar Neck slave revolt conspiracy occurred.
15 Further details of the Poplar Neck conspiracy: ... "The revolt was to have taken place in December of 1739. The leader of the conspiracy, as determined by the county court, was Jack Ransom, “a clever and sensible fellow between forty and fifty years old,” one of the several slaves of the widow Jane Brooke, mistress of the tobacco plantation Poplar Neck.."..... Their plan was to meet on a Sunday afternoon (in violation of the 1725 statute prohibiting unsupervised meetings of slaves on the Sabbath), return home, then kill their masters’ families as soon as they had retired for the night...."After securing arms and horses from their plantations, they were to meet for a night ride to Annapolis, where they would divide into two parties and seize the power magazine and Council chambers. “When they had done (this) and sufficiently fortified themselves with arms and ammunition, they were to disperse in several bodies over the Town and Cutt the throats of Men, Women, and Children….Ransom then expecting the remaining slaves of the Western Shore to desert their plantation and hasten to Annapolis. From Annapolis he would launch attacks to kill the remaining whites. When the Western Shore had been taken, they would all return to Annapolis, divide up the houses, establish a government, and live like city gentlemen......"Both Both weather and chance, however, prevented the uprising. Bordley relates that the Sunday originally set for the revolt was so rainy that most of the conspirators, including many of the leaders, failed to meet. Rain also disrupted the plans on December 1, the only specific date documented as being set for the revolt, and on at least one other following his master was to be killed. He informed Brooke of the Plan. Brooke went to the authorities, several slaves were jailed, and the revolt, postponed three times because of rain, was permanently extinguished.......Six slaves were initially jailed, and several more were probably seized later. .....The trials were held at the March 1740 session of the Prince George’s County Court. Indictments were presented against five slaves – Jack Ransom; George, also a slave of Jane Brooke; Frank, a slave of Thomas Blanford; Peter, a slave of Richard Lee; and Will, a slave of Hyde Hoxton, all of Prince George’s County. Jack Ransom, Frank, and George were charged with “Seditiously, Wickedly, Diabolically, and Horridly Contriving to Rebel and raise and insurrection within this Province of Maryland and to kill and murder a certain Jane Brooke, Henry Brooke, Joseph Brooke, and diverse others…to overthrow and Destroy the Government thereof and retain it by force and Arms.” All three pleaded not guilty. Ransom was convicted by a jury of twelve men and sentenced to be hanged. Frank and George were acquitted, as were Peter and Will, who were similarly charged but tried separately. No other slaves were prosecuted. One slave, belonging to John Blanford, died in jail, and Mistress Brooke was compensated sixty pounds current money for the loss of Jack Ransom......Although the extent of the conspiracy might have been exaggerated, the reaction within the province indicates that the slaveholders were genuinely fearful of a slave uprising.....Two days after the depositions were read to the Council, Governor Ogle issued a proclamation ordering “all Officers as well as Civil and Military within this province… to be particularly careful in putting the several Laws in Execution to prevent the Tumultuous meeting of Slaves… and to Apprehend all such Slaves as shall be found wandering who cannot give good and Satisfactory Account of themselves….” He further exhorted 'all his Majestys’ subjects to be upon their guard and to prepare in the best and most Expeditious manner they can for the defense of themselves and their neighbours and for the better exacting and Obedience from the Civil Officers in the Execution of their Duty in the Premises.'.....Local militia units were quickly formed. Bordley, in a letter to a friend, said, “the time is Come (alas this day which I never thought to see!) of being made a Soldier.” He boasted that within fifteen minutes his unit could muster forty armed horsemen and sixty armed foot soldiers. Arms and ammunition were distributed, and a guard watched the Council House and magazine every night in Annapolis. The Council, remembering that their throats were to be cut, advised that slaves not be allowed to enter Annapolis on Sundays without passes from their masters. The wording of the court proceedings and an address by Governor Ogle also indicate genuine fear. Jack Ransom, Frank, and George were charged with 'not having the fear of God before them but being moved and deduced by the instigation of the Devil.' Peter and Will were charged with 'Voluntarily, Maliciously, Feloniously, Seditiously, and Traitorously” conspiring with Jack Ransom “against the Peace of the Lord Proprietary.' Ogle maintained that “'f they had carried their Design into Execution, We should have been put to the cruel necessity of defending Our own Lives at the Expense of many of their, to the Entire Ruin of Numbers of particular Families, and perhaps of the Province in General.' Ogle, then, believed that the colony had escaped total destruction. The conspiracy played a prominent part in the politics of the province a year later. The Governor wanted a tax levied to support the war against Spain, but the Lower House refused. He therefore tied the war measure to a bill to raise funds to defend the province against its slaves. The Upper House supported him, writing that 'We should think ourselves too cool to the Publick Peace and Well being of the Province, if we were not heartily disposed to make further and better Provision, than at present, for Our common Security as well against rebellious Designs of Negroes, as hostile Attempts of His Majestys Enemies.' The Lower House could not be convinced to support the tax bill, though. They felt that 'it will be sufficient with the Arms already purchased and the Money in Bank, to enable us to defend Ourselves against Roman Catholics, Negroes, and any other Enemies…' It is significant that even though they would not appropriate more funds for defense, the Delegates classified their slaves as among their enemies" War with Spain broke out in 1739, perhaps contributing to the causes of the uprising..."The promises of the Great Awakening, particularly the condemnation of slavery by Whitefield, may have pushed the slaves to thoughts of rebellion. Rather than inspired by the Devil, as the bill of indictment against Jack Ransom proclaimed, the conspiracy might have been inspired by what the revivalist considered to be the word of God."............Source: "Jack Ransom Story - Poplar Neck and the Prince George’s Slave Conspiracy Site" co-authored and contributed by Richard Miller, 1975 HUD http://brandywinemd.com/history/people-of-note-in-the-brandywine-area/jack-ransom-story/
16. Sale of "Aich" and "Tom" from estate of Richard Hoggins (1760-1815) to his son, Richard Hoggins (died 1846) is recorded in Maryland Register of Wills Records, 1629-1999 Montgomery Accounts, inventories, wills 1823-1826 vol P; Image 13 of 295 Index Richard Hoggins List of sales page 369; "List of sales of the personal property of Richard Hoggins, late of Montgomery county dec as made by Meliann Hoggins Executr on the 26th July 1825. Sold to Richard Hoggins negro - Aich $355 Sold to Richard Hoggins negro - Tom $460 Sold to Leonard Hays negro Nel $105"
17. Milliann Hoggins probate stipulations regarding "Bill, Sarah, and Sarah's two youngest children, a boy and girl,; "Eliza," "Lewis,", "Henry," and "Mary." are recorded in FamilySearch.org Maryland Register of Wills Records, 1629-1999 Montgomery Accounts, inventories, wills 1840-1842 vol X page 318-319 Image 189 of 289
18 Probate stipulations regarding slaves of Richard Hoggins (died 1846) are recorded in FamilySearch.org Maryland Register of Wills Records, 1629-1999 Frederick Wills 1843-1849 vol 3 page 139 Image 79 of 193
19. Slaves of Richard Hoggins ((died 1846). Margaret Waters is listed in FamilySearch.org Maryland Register of Wills Records, 1629-1999 Frederick Will index 1749-1900 Book ALK (or APK) No. 1 page 596 Margaret Waters July 17, 1875 page 328 Image 188 of 215 (Unfortunately the needed volume doesn't seem to be available via FHC films). Freedom certificate information re "George Anna Waters" and "Julia Waters" is recorded in "Legacy of Slavery in Maryland", Maryland State Archives., Series: MSA c762, Entries 1 & 2 Page: 39. The will of Richard Hoggins (died 1846), stipulating bequests to Hetty Waters, is recorded in Maryland Register of Wills Records, 1629-1999 Frederick Wills 1843-1849 vol 3 page 139 Image 79 of 193 (FamilySearch.org)
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