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Dictionary of Occupations

  • Archaic Occupations (c) 2001 Genealogy Today www.genealogytoday.com
  • German to English translation of occupations

  • Archaic Occupations (c) 2001 Genealogy Today www.genealogytoday.com
    A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

    A

    ACATER - supplied food provisions
    ACCIPITRARY - falconer
    ACCOMPTANT - accountant
    ACCOUCHEUR / ACCOUCHEUS - assisted women in childbirth
    ACCOUTREMENT MAKER / ACCOUTRE - supplier of military accessories
    ACKERMAN / ACREMAN - ploughman, an oxherder
    ACTUARY - kept public accounts of business
    ADMINISTRATOR - directed the affairs of another
    ADVERTISEMENT CONVEYANCER - sandwich board man
    ADVOCATE DEPUTE - Scottish law officer who could act a public prosecutor
    ADVOWEE - normally a nobleman, who had the right to present a clergyman to a benefice
    AERONAUT - balloonist or a trapeze artist in the circus or music halls
    AFFEEROR - official in the manorial courts who assessed the monetary penalty and also collected taxes and dues and were also called Assessor
    AGISTER - official of the Royal Forests or in the New Forest it is the title for the one in charge of the ponies
    ALABASTERER - worked with alabaster
    ALBLASTERE - crossbow man
    ALCHEMIST - medieval chemist who claimed to be able to turn base metals into gold
    ALDERMAN - senior councillor one position down from Mayor in the local council
    ALE-CONNER / ALE FOUNDER - official who tested quality and measure of ale served in public houses
    ALE DRAPER - seller of ale
    ALE TASTER - tested ale and beer for quality first recored in 1377 in London. Appointed by the Manor and forerunner of the Inspector for Weights & Measures
    ALE TUNNER - employed by the brewery to fill ale casks (tuns\} with ale
    ALEWIFE - woman who keeps an alehouse or tavern
    ALL SPICE - name for a grocer
    ALMANAC MAN - official appointed by the Court of Sewers who warned the inhabitants of the Trent River area of higher than normal tides
    ALMONER - gave out alms or charity to the poor on behalf of the parish
    ALMSMAN - received alms
    ALNAGER - official who examined the quality of woolen goods and stamped them with the town seal of approval

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    Am

    AMANUENSIS - secretary or stenographer
    AMBER CUTTER - cut ambergris
    AMBER & JET CUTTER - cut and polished amber for jewelry
    AMBLER - officer of the Royal Stable who broke in horses \par AMEN MAN - parish clerk
    ANCHOR SMITH - made anchors
    ANCHORESS - female hermit or religious recluse
    ANCHORITE - male hermit or religious recluse
    ANILEPMAN - smallholder (tenant of the manor)
    ANGLE IRON SMITH - made angle iron ie. flat iron bars bent at right angles lengthways
    ANKLE BEATER - young person who helped to drive the cattle to market
    ANNATTO MAKER - worked in the manufacture of dyes for paint or printing
    ANTIGROPELOS MAKER - made waterproof leggings
    ANVIL SMITH - made anvils and hammers for blacksmiths
    APIARIAN - beekeeper
    APOTHECARY - prepared and sold medicines or drugs; pharmacist
    APPARITOR - official who summoned witnesses in the ecclesiastical courts
    APPRENTICE - was bound to a skilled worker for a specified time to learn a trade
    APRONEER - term used in London for a shopkeeper
    APRONMAN - mechanic
    AQUARIUS (EWAR) - waterman
    AQUAVITA SELLER - sold alcohol \par ARCHIATOR - physician
    ARCHIL MAKER - made a violet dye from lichens, used in the textile industry
    ARKWRIGHT - skilled craftsman who produced "arks" (wooden chests or coffers)
    ARMIGER - squire who carried the armour of a knight
    ARMOURER - made suits of armour or plates of armour for buildings or ships etc.
    ARTIFICER - highly respected skilled or artistic worker or craftsman or one that makes or contrives
    ASHMAN - dustman
    ASSAYER - determined the proportions of metal in ore
    ASSAY MASTER - determined the amount of gold or silver to go in coins
    AUGER MAKER - made the carpenters augers (used for boring holes in wood)
    AULNAGER - see Alnager
    AURIFABER - goldsmith
    AVENATOR (PLANTIFENE) - hay and forage merchant
    AVOWRY - term for the lord of the manor
    AXEL TREE MAKER / AXEL TREE TURNER - made axels for coaches and wagons

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    B

    BACKMAKER - made "backs", vats, tubs, a Cooper
    BACKMANN / BACKSTER / BAXTER / BECK / BECKER - baker
    BACK'US BOY - kitchen servant (from "back of the house")
    BACK WASHER - employed to clean the wool in the worsted manufacturing industry
    BADGER - licensed pauper who wore a badge with the letter P on it and could only work in a defined area (the term "Badgering comes from this"). A corn miller or dealer or an itinerant food trader
    BADGY FIDDLER - boy trumpeter in the military
    BAGMAN - travelling salesman
    BAGNIOKEEPER - in charge of a bath house or brothel
    BAILIFF / BAILIE / BAILLIE / BAILLEE - officer of the sheriff, a land steward acting on behalf of the Landowner or Landlord and in Scotland a magistrate of the burgh, also looked after the fishing rights on certain rivers
    BAIRMAN / BAREMAN - pauper or beggar
    BALER - bales hay and in the mills one who bailed wool or cotton goods
    BALISTER - archer most commonly a crossbowman
    BALLAST HEAVER - loaded ballast into the hold of empty ships
    BALLARD MASTER - in charge of loading the ballast into the hold of empty ships
    BALLER / BALLER UP - assisted the potter by measuring out the balls of clay
    BAL MAIDEN - female mine worker who worked on the surface (also a Pit Brow Lass)
    BAND FILER - metal worker in the gun making industry
    BANDSTER - bound the wheat sheaves after harvest
    BANG BEGGAR - officer of the parish who controlled the length of stay of any stranger to the parish
    BANKER - dug trenches and ditches to allow drainage of the land, placing the surplus earth in banks around the edge
    BANKSMAN - employed in the mining industry being in charge of the cages at the pit head (sometimes known as a bank manager)
    BARBER / BARBER SURGEON - a barber also also a surgeon (an Act was passed that limited Barbers to hair-cutting, shaving, dentistry and blood letting in the 18th century)
    BARD - poet or minstral
    BAREMAN - beggar or pauper
    BARGEE / BARGEMAN - worked on or owned and operated a barge
    BARGE MATE - Naval officer
    BARILLA MANUFACTURER - made barilla, a substance obtained from burning saltworts, the resulting mixture of sodium salts being used in the glass and ceramics industry
    BARKEEPER - another name for a tollkeeper
    BARKER - tanner
    BARTONER - in charge of the monastic farm, also known as a barton

    Bas

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    BASIL WORKER - worked with sheep and goat skins
    BASKETMAN - made baskets and furniture from wicker, and also employed to empty the basket of coal being offloaded from the colliers into the barges
    BASS / BAST DRESSER - employed in dressing fibre or matting
    BATHING MACHINE PROPRIETOR - owned and hired the changing huts used at the seaside in the by bathers
    BATMAN - officers servant in the army
    BATT MAKER - made the wadding used in quilt and mattress making
    BATTER OUT - sliced a short cylinder of clay (a bat) from a "pug" and threw it onto a mold shaped for the face of a ceramic plate
    BATTLEDORE MAKER - made the beaters used on clothes carpets etc to remove the dust (later made the paddles used in washing machines)
    BAUER - farmer
    BAXTER - baker
    BAYWEAVER - who wove bay (a fine woollen fabric also known as baize)
    BEADLE / BEDEL / BEDELL - officer of the parish whose principle duty was to keep order, also was the town crier
    BEADMAN / BEADSMAN / BEDESMAN - employed to pray for his employer, inhabitant of an almshouse / poorhouse / hospital or tenant employed by the manor for a specific service
    BEAD PIERCER - employed to drill the holes in beads
    BEAMER - winds the warp on the roller before putting it on the loom in the textile industry
    BEARER - worked undergrpound carrying the coal to the bottom of the pit shaft and placed it in the containers for uplifting to the surface
    BEATER - cleansed and thickened the cloth by treading it underwater with fullers earth (aka Fuller)
    BEAVER - made felt used in hat making \par
    BEDMAN - sexton \par
    BEDRAL - in Scotland a minor church official
    BEDWEVERE - made the webbing for bed frames and also a one who wove quilts
    BEESKEPMAKER - made beehives
    BEETLER - operated a beetling machine, used in the textile trade for embossing fabric
    BELHOSTE - tavern keeper
    BELLEYETERE - bellfounder
    BELLFOUNDER / BELTER / BILLITER - made bells
    BELL HANGER - installed bells in churches
    BELLMAN - employed as a watchman or town crier or who worked for the post office and collected letters for the mail coach by walking the streets and ringing a bell
    BELLOWFARMER - responsible for the care and maintenance of the church organ
    BELLOWS MAKER - made bellows used for organs or blacksmiths fires
    BELLY BUILDER - built and fitted the interiors of pianos
    BENDER - cut leather
    BESOM MAKER - made brooms
    BESSWARDEN - appointed by the parish to look after its animals
    BEVER - beverage maker

    Bi

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    BIDDY - female servant usually of Irish stock
    BILLIER / BILLYMAN - operated a Billy Roller, a machine used in the cotton industry to prepare the cotton for spinning
    BILL POSTER - put up notices, signs and advertisements
    BINDER - bound items, e.g., books, hats etc .
    BIRD BOY - employed to scare away birds from crops
    BIRD CATCHER - caught birds for selling
    BIRDS NEST SELLER - sold bird nests collected from the wild complete with eggs which were then hatched by domestic birds and sold as pets
    BIRLYMAN - in Scotland a ground officer or parish arbiter
    BLACK BORDERER - made black edged stationery for funerals
    BLACK TRAY MAKER - made Japanned trays
    BLACKING MAKER - made polish for shoes
    BLADESMITH - swordmaker or knife maker
    BLAXTER / BLEACHER - bleached cloth or paper pulp
    BLEMMERE - plumber
    BLENTONIST - water diviner
    BLINDSMAN - employed by the Post Office to deal with incorrectly addressed letters and parcels
    BLOCKCUTTER / BLOCKER - made wooden blocks used in the hat trade or laid down the blocks on which a ships keel was laid; a blockcutter was also a person who made and cut the patterns into wooden blocks for textile printing
    BLOCK MAKER - engraved the blocks used in the printin
    BLOCK PRINTER - printer who used wooden blocks for printing
    BLOODMAN / BLOODLETTER - used leeches for letting blood, this was thought to be a cure for many ailments
    BLOOMER - produced iron from ore, a bloom smithy
    BLOWER - glass blower, one who operated a "blowing machine" used to clean and separate fibres in the textile trade, one who operated the bellows at a blacksmiths
    BLOWFEEDER - fed the fibres into a "blowing machine"
    BLUESTOCKING - female writer
    BLUFFER - innkeeper or landlord of a pub

    Bo

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    BOARDING OFFICER - inspected ships before entering port
    BOARDMAN - truant officer who checked school attendance. a tenant of manorial land who paid rent by maintaining the manor's table
    BOARDWRIGHT - made tables and chairs aka carpenter
    BOATMAN - worked on a boat, predominately on rivers and canals also the name given to a boat repairer
    BOATSWAIN - ship's officer in charge of riggings & sails
    BOBBER - who polished metals one who helped to unload fishing boats
    BOBBIN CARRIER - worked in spinning and weaving sections of the mills
    BOBBIN TURNER - made the bobbins used in the spinning and weaving industry
    BOBBY - policeman usually of constable rank
    BODEYS / BODY MAKER - made bodices for womens garments
    BODGER - craftsman who made wooden chair legs and the spars and usually worked in the actual woodland that they cut the timber in
    BOILERMAKER - worked with metal in any industrial setting
    BOILER PLATER - made rolled iron plate used to make boilers for steam engines etc
    BOLL - looked after power looms in the weaving industry
    BOLTER - sifted meal
    BONDAGER - female worker on a farm who was bonded
    BONDMAN - bonded to a master for the purpose of learning a skill or trade
    BONDSMAN - stood bond or surety for another where a bond was required by law
    BONE BUTTON TURNER - made buttons using a lathe
    BONE LACE MAKER - made pillow lace
    BONE MOULD TURNER - made the moulds for button manufacturers
    BONE PICKER - collected rags and bones aka Rag and Bone Man
    BONESETTER - set broken bones
    BONIFACE - keeper of an inn
    BOOK GILDER - decorated books with gold leaf
    BOOKHOLDER - prompter in the theater
    BOOK KEEPER - looked after the accounts for businesses
    BOOKMAN - student
    BOONMASTER - surveyor of roads with the responsibilities of maintaining and repairing the road
    BOOTBINDER - employed to operate the machines which bound footware
    BOOT CATCHER - servant at inn who pulled off traveler's boots
    BOOT CLOSER - worked in the shoe trade stitching together all the parts of a shoe upper
    BOOTHMAN - corn merchant
    BORLER - who made cheap coarse clothing
    BORSHOLDER - regional name (Kent) for a constable
    BOTCHER - tailor or cobbler
    BOTTILER / BOTTLER - made leather containers for holding liquids eg wine flasks or water bottles
    BOTTLE BOY - pharmacists assistant
    BOTTOM KNOCKER - sagger makers assistant in the pottery industry
    BOTTOM MAKER - moulded the bottoms for saggers in the pottery industry
    BOTTOMER - worked down the pits moving the ore etc to the bottom of the shaft for removal
    BOWDLER - worked with iron ore
    BOWKER - bleached yarn. A local term in some parts of Lancashire for a butcher
    BOWLER - made bowls and dishes and also a term used for those who made the rounded part of spoons before casting
    BOWLMAN / BOWLWOMAN - dealer in crockery
    BOWLMINDER - in charge of the vats used for washing raw wool before processing
    BOWYER / BOWER - made bows used in archery
    BOZZLER - parish constable

    Br

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    BRABENER - weaver
    BRACHYGRAPHER - shorthand writer
    BRAIDER - made cord by twisting threads or strips of leather
    BRAILLER - made girdles
    BRAKEMAN / BRAKESMAN - operated the winch at the pit head or operated the braking mechanism on trains and trams
    BRASILER - dyer
    BRAZIER - worker with brass
    BREWSTER - female brewer or brewer
    BRIGHTSMITH - metal worker
    BROOM-DASHER - dealer in brooms
    BROOM SQUIRE - broom maker
    BROTHERER / BROWDERER / BRODERER / BROIDERER - embroiderer
    BROW GIRL - female employed at the pit head
    BROWNSMITH - works with copper or brass
    BUCK WASHER - laundress
    BUCKLE TONGUE MAKER - made the metal points that go in the holes of a belt
    BUCKLER / BUCKLESMITH - made buckles
    BUCKRAM MAKER - worked with buckram (used in stiffening materials) e.g. belts, lapels and collars
    BUDDLEBOY - employed to use and maintain the vats used in the lead and tin mines for washing the ore
    BUDDLER - women and children who washed the ore at the copper mines in Allihies, Berehaven
    BUFFALO SOLDIER - soldier serving in a black regiment in the US Army in the West
    BULLOCKY - attended to the daily needs of cattle and may also have lent a hand with general farm duties, especially during busy periods
    BULLWHACKER - oxen driver
    BUMBOAT MAN - met ships at anchor with goods for passengers and crew to purchase
    BUMMAREE - middle man between the wholesaler and the retailer at the fish markets
    BUMMER - army deserter
    BUNTER - female rag & bone collector
    BURELER - made borel, a woollen cloth with a coarse feel
    BURGESS - represented a borough at official levels
    BURGOMASTER - mayor
    BURLER - quality inspector for clothing
    BURMAIDEN - chambermaid or lady-in-waiting
    BURNEMAN - carrier of barm or water for brewers
    BURYE MAN - grave digger
    BUSHEL MAKER - cooper
    BUSHELER - tailor's helper
    BUSKER - hair dresser and also a street entertainer
    BUSS MAKER - maker of guns
    BUTNER - button maker
    BUTTER CARVER - made imprints in butter pats
    BUTTON BURNISHER - button polisher
    BUTTY - negotiated mining contracts and supplied the labor

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    C

    CADDY BUTCHER - butcher that dealt in horse meat
    CADDIE - messenger or errand boy
    CADGER - beggar
    CAFENDER - carpenter
    CAFFLER - rag and bone collector
    CAINER - made walking sticks
    CAIRD - another term for a tinker
    CALCINER - burnt bones to make powdered lime
    CALENDER - listed documents
    CALENDERER / CALENDERMAN / CALENDER WORKER - operated a machine which pressed using two large rollers (calender) used to press and finish fabrics or paper
    CALICO PRINTER - dyed and colored calico
    CAMBRIC MAKER - made a fine linen or cotton fabric called cambric
    CAMISTER - minister of the cloth
    CANDLE MAKER / CANDLER - who made and sold candles
    CAMBIST - banker \par CAMERIST - lady's maid
    CAMLET MERCHANT - seller of camlet, cloth used to make cloaks & petticoats
    CAMPANER - bell maker
    CANDY MAN - traveling candy salesman and also slang name for a baliff
    CANCELLARIUS - chancellor
    CANER / CHAIR BOTTOMER - made the seats for chairs out of woven cane
    CANNALLER - canal boat worker
    CANTER - religious speaker who uses cant
    CANTING CALLER - auctioneer
    CANVASER - made canvas
    CAPER - cap maker
    CAPILLAIRE MAKER - made orange flavored syrup
    CAPITALIST - investor
    CAPPER / CAP MAKER - made caps usually worn by the working class
    CAPTAIN - in charge of a ship or a group of soldiers and also term for an overseer
    CARDROOMER - term for anyone who worked in the carding room of the mills
    CARDER - cards wool \par CARDMAKER - maker of cards or instruments for combing wool
    CARMAN / CHARMAN / CARTER / CARRIER - drove a vehicle used to transport goods
    CARD NAILER / NAILORA - maintained the teeth (nails) on the carding machine used for preparing wool and cotton for weaving
    CARETAKER - takes care of another's property
    CARNER - granary keeper
    CARNIFEX - butcher
    CARPENTARIUS - carpenter
    CARRY-IN-BOY - took finished bottled (products) to the tempering oven
    CARTER - carries or conveys in or as if in a cart
    CART WHEELER - made cart wheels
    CARTOGRAPHER - map maker
    CARTOMANCER - fortune teller who used cards
    CARTWRIGHT - maker of carts & wagons
    CASHMARIE - sold fish usually at inland markets
    CASTER / CASTORA - made small bottles used for sprinkling salt, pepper, sugar etc
    CASTRATOR - who castrated farm animals aka gelder
    CATAGMAN - cottager
    CATCHPOLE / CATCHPOLLA - sheriff's assistance or bailiff
    CATECHISTA - teacher of religion
    CATTLE JOBBER - buys and sells cattle
    CAULKER - filled up cracks (in ships or windows) or seams to make them watertight

    Ce

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    CEILER - puts up the ceilings in buildings
    CELLARMAN - looked after the beer, wines and spirits in public houses or the warehouse
    CEMMER - hand combed the yarn before weaving \par CHAFF CUTTER - made chaff by cutting straw
    CHAFFERER - dealer in chaff
    CHAIR BODGER - traveling chair repairman
    CHAISE MAKER - made carts from wicker
    CHALONER - dealer in shalloon, a material
    CHAMBERLAIN - steward to either royalty or nobility, in charge of the household
    CHAMBERMAID - female servant attending to bedrooms in houses or inns
    CHAMBER MASTER - shoemaker that worked from home as an outworker or selling direct
    CHAUNTER - street entertainer who sung ballads
    CHEESE FACTOR / CHEESEMAN / CHEESE MONGER - dealer in cheeses
    CHANDLER - candle seller, grocer, provisioner, usually associated with provisioning ships
    CHANTY MAN - sailor that led the singing of shanties on board ship
    CHAPELER - made and sold hats
    CHAPMAN / COPEMAN / PETTY CHAPMAN / CEAPMAN - dealer or peddler of goods usually itinerant going from village to village.
    CHARCOAL BURNER - made charcoal usually in the woods where the trees were cut
    CHARTMASTER - middleman that negotiated mining contracts and suppiled the labour
    CHARWOMAN - cleaning woman
    CHATELAINE - mistress of a castle or house
    CHECKWEIGHMAN - employed by a group of miners paid piecework (by the ton mined) to check coal weight recorded by the mine management
    CHIFFONIER - wig maker or ragpicker
    CHILDBED LINEN WAREHOUSE KEEPER / DEALER - hired bedlinen for childbirth as most children were born at home
    CHIMNEY SWEEP - chimney cleaner
    CHINGLOR - rooftiler who used wooden shingles
    CHIP - shipwright or carpenter
    CHIPPERS LABOURER - assistant to a shipwright or ships carpenter
    CHIROPODIST - treats diseases of the feet & hands
    CHIRUGION or CHIRURGEON - apothecary or surgeon (usually learned by apprenticeship)
    CHOWDER - fish monger
    CHRONOLOGIST - recorded official events of historical importance
    CINDER WENCH - female who collected the cinders from gas works and sold them door to door
    CLAKER - magician/astrologer
    CLAPMAN - town crier
    CLARK - clerk
    CLASSMAN - unemployed laborer
    CLAVIGER - servant
    CLAY CARRIER - assistant to the shot firer in the pits
    CLAYMAN / CLEYMAN - worked in the clay pits usually preparing the clay for making bricks and also one who coated the outside of buildings with clay to make them water proof
    CLERICUS - clerk
    CLERK - clergyman or cleric
    CLICKER - worked in the shoe trade cutting out the lowers and one in charge of the final stage of layout before printing in printing industry
    CLIPPER / CLIPPER ON / CLIPPER OFF - attached the coal carts to the wire or rope which was used to drag the carts to and from the coal face
    CLOD HOPPER - plowman
    CLOGGER - maker of wooden shoes
    CLOTH LAPPER - took the cloth from the carding machine readied it for the next process
    CLOTH LINTER / CLOTH PICKER - removed unwanted threads and lint from the finished material
    CLOTHIER / CLOTHESMAN / CLOTHMAN - who made or sold clothes
    CLOUTER / CLOWER - made nails also another term for a shoemaker for the former term

    Co

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    COACHMAN / COACH DRIVER - drove any coach
    COAL BACKER - carried the sacks of coal from the coal barge to the coal wagons \par
    COAL BURNER - made charcoal
    COAL DRAWER - worked in the mines pushing or dragging the coal carts to the bottom of the pit
    COAL HEAVER - unloaded coal
    COALMAN / COAL MERCHANT/COAL HIGGLER - sold coal usually from a horse and cart, house to house.
    COALMETER - measured the coal
    COAL RUNNER - attended the coal carts underground
    COAL WHIPPER - unloaded coal from ships using baskets attached to a simple form of crane
    COAST SURVEYOR / WAITER - customs officer who watched over the ofloading off goods on the coast
    COBBLER - shoemaker
    COBLEMAN - used a flat bottomed boat for fishing
    COCUS - cook
    COD PLACER - put fire proof containers which held the pottery for firing into the kiln
    COHEN - a priest
    COINER - worked at the mint stamping out coins
    COLLAR MAKER - made horse collars and one who made shirt collars
    COLLIER - coal miner, a coal merchant or one who worked on the coal barges
    COLONUS - Latin for farmer or husbandman
    COLPORTEUR - traveling Bible or religious book salesman
    COLOURATOR / COLORATORA - worked with dyes
    COLOUR MAN - mixed the dyes in the textile trade and also assistant to a house painter
    COMBER or COMBERE - combs wool
    COMB MAKER - made combs either for the textile industry for combing wool etc. or the maker of hair combs
    COMPOSITOR - set the type ready for printing
    CONDER / CONNER - gave steering instructions to the steersman and also gave directions to inshore fisherman of fish movements on shoals (usually from the top of cliffs or rocks)
    CONEY CATCHER - rabbit catcher \par CONFECTIONER - candy maker
    CONNER - inspector or tester
    COOPER or CUPER - maker of barrels
    COPEMAN / COPER - dealer in goods and also dishonest dealer in horses in the latter case
    COPPERBEATER / COPPERBETER - coppersmith
    COPPERSMITH - worked with copper
    CORACLE MAKER - made coracles, a small round boat used for fishing
    CORDINER / CORDWAINER / CORVINER / CORVISOR - originally term used for one who worked with Cordovan (a special leather from Spain) but later term used for shoemaker
    CORPORAL (or Doggy) - man in charge of underground haulage hands
    COSTERMONGER - fruit seller
    COSTER WIFE - female fruit seller
    COTILER - cutler
    COTTIER - landless farmer in the Irish midland estates that farmed at will, not year to year
    COUPER - buys & sells
    COURANTEER - journalist
    COWHERD - cow tender
    COWKEEPER - kept one or more cows (a common source of livelihood in cities) when a cow was kept in the back yard of a house, providing milk which was sold at the front door or window, forerunner of the local dairy
    COXWAIN - ship or boat helmsman
    CRATCH MAKER - made cratches (mangers, cribs, or frames) for hay
    CRIER - law court officer, auctioneer, town announcer
    CRIMPER - member of navy press gang
    CROCKER - potter
    CROFTER - tenant of a small piece of land
    CROPPER - tenant who is paid with a share of the crop
    CROSIER / CROZIER - bearer of the pastoral staff of a bishop or the bearer of the cross before the archbishop in the church
    CROWNER - coroner
    CUHREUR (CUNREUR) - currier
    CURER - cures tobacco
    CURRETTER - broker
    CURRIER - cures or tans hides
    CUSTOMER - customs tax collector
    CUTLER - knife seller or sharpener

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    D

    DAGUERREOTYPE ARTIST - early name for a photographer (from the Daguerreotype method)
    DAIRYMAN - worker or owner of a dairy farm or seller of dairy products
    DAMSTER - builder of dams for logging purposes
    DANTER - female overseer in the winding rooms of a silk mill
    DATELER / DAY MAN / DAYTALEMAN - casual worker, usually employed by the day
    DEATHSMAN - executioner
    DECIMER / DOZENER - elected by the householders in a street to act as their representative at the borough's Court Leet
    DECOYMAN - employed to decoy the wild fowl, animals etc into a trap or within shooting range
    DECRETIST - knowledgeable in decrees, decretals
    DEEMER / DEEMSTER / DEMSTER / DEMPSTER - judge, usually in the Channel Isles or Isle of Man
    DELVER - dug ditches
    DEPATER - precious metal refiner
    DEPUTY - safety officer for the pit crew in the mining industry
    DERRICKMAN - worked on an oil well handling the tubes and rods used in drilling
    DEVIL - printer's errand boy
    DEVILLER - operated the devil, a machine that tore rags used in the textile industry
    DEXTER - dyer
    DEY WIFE - female dairy worker
    DEXTER - dyer
    DIKEMAN / DYKEMAN - hedger or ditcher
    DIPPER - who worked in the pottery trade and was responsible for the glazing of items
    DISHER / DISH THROWER - who made bowls and dishes
    DISH TURNER - who made wooden bowls or dishes
    DISTILLER - maker of alcoholic beverages
    DISTRIBUTOR - parish official attached to the workhouse / poorhouse who looked after the secular needs of the poor
    DOCKER / DOCK WALLOPER - dock worker, longshoreman
    DOCK MASTER - in charge of a dockyard \par DOG LEECH - veterinarian
    DOG-WHIPPER - drove dogs away in a village
    DOMESMAN - judge
    DOMESTIC - household servant
    DONKEY BOY / DONKEY MAN - driver of a carriage for passengers
    DOOR KEEPER - guard, janitor, or porter

    DOUBLER - operated a machine used to twist together strands of fibre (cotton, wool etc)
    DOWSER / DIVINER - water finder
    DRAGMAN - fisher man who fished by dragging a net along the bottom of the water
    DRAGOMAN - acted as interpreter or guide in Turkish or Arabic
    DRAGSMAN - driver of a small stage coach or carriage used for public transport or private hire
    DRAGOON - mounted infantryman
    DRAINER - made drains
    DRAPER - dealer in fabrics and sewing needs
    DRAWBOY - weavers assistant in the shawl making mills , they sat atop the looms and lifted the heavy warps.
    DRAYMAN - cart driver
    DREDGERMAN - one who in a boat to collect the bits and pieces that had fallen overboard from other vessels which then were sold (London occupation)
    DRESSER - one who dresses another, surgeon's assistant and also one who operated a machine which prepared threads in the textile industry
    DRESSING MACHINE MAKER - made sewing machines
    DRIFT MAKERA - made drift nets, used in the fishing industry
    DRIPPING MAN - dealer in dripping (the fat collected during the cooking of meats)
    DRIVER - slave overseer
    DROVER - sheep or cattle driver
    DRUGGER - pharmacist
    DRUMMER - traveling salesman
    DRY SALTER - dealer in pickles, dried meats, and sauces or a dealer in dyes and colors used in the dying trade
    DUBBERE - cloth dubber, i.e., one who raises the nap of cloth
    DUFFER - peddler of cheap goods
    DUSTMAN / DUSTBIN MAN - collected domestic refuse
    DRY STONE WALLER (DRY STANE DYKER in Scottish) - built stone walls usually using the stones removed from the fields as building materials. The art was in not using any cement or mortar and generally not cutting the stone, but being able to see where variuos stones would fit together
    DYER - employed in the textile mills to color fabric prior to weaving
    DYKER - Scottish term for a stonemason

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    E

    EALDORMAN - an official of the shire courts who acted as the King's deputy taking payment from the profits of the court
    EBONITE TURNER - one who worked with ebonite or vulcanite, making combs or ornaments etc
    EARER - plowwman
    EARTH STOPPER - one who plugs up animal holes
    EGG FACTOR / EGGLER - egg or poultry dealer
    ELEPHANTS TEETH DEALER - who dealt in ivory ornaments etc
    ELLERMAN / ELLIMAN - who sold oil used for lamps and known as an oilman
    ELYMAKER - oilmaker
    EMBOSSER - who moulded or carved designs that were raised above the surface of the material
    EMPRESARIO - land broker, settlement scheme promoter, showman
    ENDHOLDERNN - inn keeper
    ENGINEMAN - employed at a mine to be in charge of the machinery used to crush the ore
    ENGINE TENTER - who operated the machine which stretched the cloth whilst drying in a woollen mill
    ENSIGN - commissioned officer in the navy
    ENUMERATOR - who collected the information for the census from the householder and recorded it
    EQUERRY - officer of the royal household usually responsible for the royal horses
    EREMITE - hermit
    ERITE - heretic
    ESQUIRE - one who attended a knight, which later became a title for a man of standing in society
    ESTAFETTE - mounted courier
    EWE HERD - shepherd
    EXCHEQUER - revenue collector
    EXCISEMAN - excise tax collector
    EXPRESSMAN - person employed in the express business
    EYER - one who made eyes in needles used for sewing. Sometimes called a Holer

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    F

    FABER - artisan or workman
    FABRICATOR - maker
    FACTOR - an agent employed by merchants to transact business of buying and selling and a Scottish term for the steward of an estate responsible for collection of land rents
    FAGETTER - made up faggots into bundles, seller of firewood
    FAKER - photographic assistant who added color to photographs by hand before color film was available
    FALCONER - breeds, trains, or hunts with hawks
    FANCY-PEARL WORKER - worked in mother-of-pearl making buttons or fancy goods
    FANCY MAN - pimp
    FANCY WOMAN - prostitute
    FANNER - grain winnower
    FANWRIGHT - maker and repairer of fans or winnowing baskets
    FARANDMAN - traveling merchant
    FARMER - often descendant of the gentry and, ultimately, noble classes; usually having servants and farm workers, e.g., husbandmen, groomsmen, etc
    FARRIER / FERROUR - horse shoer or blacksmith
    FAWKNER - trainer of falcons
    FEAR-NOTHING MAKER - weaver of special kind of thick woollen cloth known as fear-nought, used for protective clothing and lining portholes, walls, and doors of powder magazines on board ships.
    FEATHER BEATER / FEATHER DRIVER - cleanser of feathers
    FEATHER-DRESSER - who cleaned and prepared feathers for sale
    FEATHERMAN - dealer in feathers and plumes
    FEATHER-WIFE - woman who prepared feathers for use
    FEEDER - herdsman
    FELLER - woodcutter
    FELL MONGER - remover of hair or wool from hides in leather making
    FELTER - worker in the hatting industry
    FERONER - ironmonger
    FERRETER - dealer in or manufacturer of ferret, ie. silk tape
    FETTLER - cleaned the machinery in woollen mills, removing accumulated fibres, grease, etc., sharpened the fustian cutters knives or needlemaker who filed the needle to a point
    FEVER - blacksmith
    FEWSTER - maker of saddletrees
    FEWTERER - keeper of hounds, for hunting or coursing
    FIDDLER - used a fiddle (small knife) to remove the flashing from cast clay forms such as bowl, creamers, cups or pitchers
    FILE CUTTER - a maker of files, involved the cutting of grooves on the file surface
    FILIBUSTER - American mercenaries in South America, gun runners
    FILLER - who filled bobbins in mills
    FINE DRAWER - employed in tailoring to repair tears in the cloth (invisible mending)
    FINISHER - operated machine giving final touches to a manufactured article in various trades
    FIREBEATER - tended the boilers that powered the machinery in a cotton mill
    FIREMAN - inspected for, and removed explosive gasses underground in mining or stoked the boilers on ships and locomotives
    FIRST HAND - silk weaver who had his own loom (an outworker)
    FISCERE - fisherman
    FISHER (FISHDRYVER) - victualler
    FISH FAG - female fish monger
    FITTER - coal broker

    Fl

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    FLAUNER - confectioner
    FLASHER - specialist process worker in the glass industry
    FLATMAN / FLOATMAN - navigated a flat, a broad flat-bottomed boat used for transport, especially in shallow waters
    FLAXDRESSER - prepared flax prior to spinning
    FLESHMONGER / FLESHER - butcher or one who worked in a tannery
    FLESHEWER - butcher
    FLETCHER - arrowsmith (from French fleche).
    FLOATER - vagrant or one who regulated the year-round workings of the watermeadows in winter by adjusting the hatches on the channels to flood or float the meadows with a shallow covering of water to protect them from frost and encourage the early growth of new grass mainly for early feed for sheep and other animals. The sheep were pastured on the new grass by day and driven up on to the downs to be folded by night to provide the manure needed for the coming season's grain crops
    FLUSHERMAN - who cleaned out water mains
    FLYCOACHMAN - driver of one-horse carriage hired by the day
    FLYING STATIONER - street broadsheet seller
    FLYMAN - driver of a light vehicle hired out for carriage of passenger or Theatre stage hand
    FOGGER - peddler or low class lawyer
    FOISTER / FOISTERER - joiner
    FOOT MAIDEN - female servant
    FOOT MAN - servant who ran errands
    FOOT PAD - robber
    FOOT-POST - letter carrier or messenger who travelled on foot
    FOOT STRAIGHTENER - one who assembled watch and clock dials in watchmaking
    FORESTER - game warden or forest ranger
    FORGEMAN - blacksmith or assistant (coachsmith 18th century Derbyshire)
    FORGER - blacksmith, worker at a forge \p
    FOSSETMAKER - who made faucets for ale-casks, etc
    FOWER - street cleaner, sweeper
    FOWLER / FOGLER / FUGLER / VOWLER / VOGELER / VOGLER / VAGELER / VOGELAAR / VOGLER - keeper or catcher of birds
    FRAME SPINNER - worker on a loom
    FRAMER - one who frames houses
    FRAMEWORKER KNITTER - operator of machine which made hosiery
    FREEDMAN - one released from slavery
    FREEMASON - stonecutter
    FRESER - maker of frieze, a rough plaster
    FRESHWATER MAN - sailed boat on fresh water only or in the coastal trade
    FRIPPERER - buyer & seller of old clothes
    FRISEUR - hair dresser
    FROBISHER / FURBISHER / FURBER / FURBOUR - remover of rust, a polisher of metal, eg. armour
    FRUITERER - fruit seller
    FRUITESTERE - female fruit seller
    FULKER - pawnbroker
    FULLER - cloth worker who shrinks, beats and presses the cloth (also see WALKER)
    FUNAMBULIST - tightrope walker
    FURBISHER - armor polisher
    FURNER - baker
    FURRIER - seller or maker of furs
    FUSTIAN WEAVER - maker of corduroy

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    G

    GAFFER - foreman of a work crew or in glass factory, one who smoothed, reheated the neck of and formed lip on a bottle
    GAFFMAN - a bailiff
    GAGER - tax collector of liquor taxes
    GALVANISER - iron worker who handled process of coating metal with zinc, to inhibit formation of rust
    GAMESTER - gambler or prostitute
    GANGER - overseer or foreman from 1850 onwards
    GANGSMAN - foreman
    GANNEKER - tavern keeper
    GAOLER - jailer
    GARCIFER / GARCIO - groom; attendant
    GARLEKMONGER - garlicmonger; dealer in garlic
    GARTHMAN - owner or worker of a fish trap
    GAS MANAGER - forman position in charge of checking for poisonous gas in coal mine shafts
    GATER - watchman
    GATHERER - glassworker who inserted the blow iron into the molten glass ready for the blower
    GATHERERS BOY - held a shovel to shield the gatherer's face from the heat
    GATWARD - goat keeper
    GAUGER - customs official who measured the capacity of imported barrels of liquor in order to calculate the customs duty
    GAUNTER - glover
    GAVELLER - userer and in the Forest of Dean, an officer fo the Crown who granted gales or the right to work a mine and in Suffolk a harvest worker, usually female
    GETTER - produced coal at the coal face
    GELDER - castrator of animals, especially horses
    GEOMETER - skilled in geometry
    GERUND GRINDER - Latin instructor
    GILDER - applies gold leaf
    GIMLER - machinist involved in making a gimp, a kind of card
    GINOUR - engineer
    GIRDLER - leather worker who made girdles and belts, chiefly for the Army
    GLASS COACHMAN - driver of two-horse carriage hired out for the day
    GLASSEWRYGHT - glasswright; maker and mender of glassware
    GLAZIER - glass cutter or window classman
    GLIMMER MAN - in Dublin, the man who would turn out (or down) the gas street-lights and also warn people turn out lights in their houses to ensure blackouts during bombing raids at War time
    GLOVER - one that makes or sells gloves
    GOAT CARRIAGE MAN - driver of small passenger carriage
    GOLDSMITH - maker of gold articles, banker
    GOOSE HERD - tends geese
    GORZEMAN - seller of gorse or broom
    GRACE WIFE - midwife
    GRAFFER - notary or scrivener
    GRAINER - painted wood to make it look like great and exotic woods
    GRANGER - farmer
    GRAVER - carver or sculptor, engraver of images or dockside worker who cleaned ship bottoms by burning and tarring
    GRAZIER - pastures and raises cattle
    GREAVE / GRIEVE - bailiff, foreman, sheriff
    GREEN GROCER - fruit and vegetable seller
    GREENSMITH - worker in copper or latten
    GRIMBRIBBER - lawyer
    GROOVER - miner
    GROUNDSEL & CHICKWEED SELLER - streetseller of common weeds, used to feed pet songbirds
    GUINEA PIG - an unattached, or roving person whose fee was usally a guinea
    GUMMER - one who improved old saws by deepening the cuts
    GUTTA-PERCHA MANUFACTURER - makes a tough plastic substance derived from latex and percha scrap used especially as insulation and in dentistry
    GYNOUR - engineer
    GYP - college servant especially one attending undergraduates

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    H

    HABERDASHER - seller of men's clothing
    HACKER - maker of hoes
    HACKLER / HACKMAN / HECKLER - one who separated the coarse part of flax or hemp with a hackle, an instrument with teeth in linen industry
    HACKNEY MAN - renter of horses & carriages
    HAIR SEATING & CURLED HAIR MERCHANT - dealer in horse-hair stuffing used in upholstery
    HAIRWEAVER / HAIRMAN - weaver of cloth composed wholly or partly of horsehair
    HALBERT CARRIER - soldier or halberdier, armed with a halberd, a combination spear and battleaxe (a ceremonial officer)
    HAMMERMAN - hammerer, a smith
    HAND FLOWERER - ladies living mainly in rural locations who embroidered flowers or similar designs on muslin or cambric
    HANDLE STICKER - put handles on cast ceramic cups, pitchers, etc
    HANDSELLER - street vendor
    HANDWOMAN - midwife or female attendant
    HANKYMAN - a travelling magician in Victorian/Edwardian England
    HANGER-ON / HOOKER-ON / ONSETTER -- hung corves (originally baskets) on rope at the pit-bottom; later used for man who pushed tubs of coal into the mine-shaft cage
    HANSARD - weapon maker or seller
    HARLOT - vagabond, beggar, rogue, 14th century male servant, attendant or menial, and 15th century, loose woman
    HARMER BECK - constable
    HARPER - performer on the harp
    HATCHLER - combed out or carded flax
    HATTER - maker of or dealer in hats
    HAWKER / HUCKSTER - peddler
    HAYMONGER - dealer in hay
    HAYWARD - fence viewer
    HEADSMAN - executioner
    HEADSWOMAN - midwife
    HEALD KNITTER - operator of a machine which produced a jersey type of fabric as opposed to woven fabric
    HECK MAKER - maker of a part of a spinning machine by which the yarn is guided to the reels
    HEDGE LOOKER - supervised good repair of fence and enclosures
    HEDGER - hedge trimmer
    HEELMAKER - made shoe heels
    HELLIER / HILLIER - tiler or slater
    HELLO GIRL - telephone employee in the early 1900s
    HELPER-UP - young boy employed in Durham pits to help other workers
    HEMPHECKLER - flax worker
    HENCHMAN / HENSMAN - horseman or groom
    HENTER - thief
    HETHELEDER - provider of heather for fuel
    HEWER - miner who cut coal, stone, etc., a face worker in a mine \par HIGGLER - one who haggles or bargains or itinerant dealer, similar to a cadger
    HIGHWAYMAN - robber who preys on public roads
    HILLARD / HILLER / HILLIER - covered houses with slate; tiler
    HIND - farm laborer
    HIRED MAN - gardener, farmhand, or stableman

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    HOBBLER - boat tower on a river or canal \par HODSMAN - mason's assistant
    HOGGARD - pig drover
    HOGHEAD / HOGGER - railroad engineer or train driver
    HOLSTER - groom who took care of horses
    HONEY DIPPER - extracted raw sewage from catch basins and out-houses
    HOOFER - dancer
    HOOKER - 16th century reaper, 19th century worker in textile industry who operated a machine which laid fabric flat in uniform folds of any required length
    HOOPER - makes hoops for casks (not a cooper)
    HORNER - worker in horn making spoons, combs, or musical horns
    HORSE COURSER - owner of race horses
    HORSE KNAVE - groom
    HORSE LEECH - veterinarian, farrier
    HORSE MARINE - man-handled barges on canals when horses could not be used
    HORSE-CAPPER - dealer in worthless horses
    HORSE-HAIR CURLER - dressed horse hair which was used extensively in the upholstery trade
    HOSIER - retailer of stockings, socks, gloves, nightcaps
    HOSTELLER - innkeeper
    HOSTLER / OSTLER - cares for horses, stableman, groom, repairer or railway engines
    HOUSE JOINER - house framer
    HOUSE WRIGHT - house builder
    HOTPRESSER - worker in paper or textile industries where product was pressed between glazed boards and hot metal plates to obtain a smooth and shiny surface
    HOYMAN - one who carries goods and passengers by water (Hoy - small coastal vessel or sloop)
    HOWDY WIFE - midwife
    HUCKSTER - sells small wares
    HUISSHER - usher or door attendant
    HURDLEMAN / HURDLER - hedge-maker, of wattled framework fencing
    HURRIERS - term applied to the girls aged 5-18 who were employed as coal-drawers in the coal industry
    HUSBANDMAN - tenant farmer
    HUSH SHOP KEEPER - brewed and sold beer without a license (usually as a side line)

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    I

    ICEMAN - seller or deliverer of ice
    IDLEMAN - gentleman of leisure
    INFIRMARIAN - in charge of an infirmary
    INTELLIGENCER - spy
    INTENDENT - director of a public or government business
    INTERFACTOR - murderer
    IRON FOUNDER - one who founds or iron
    IRON MONGER - dealer in hardware made of iron (also known as a feroner)
    IRON MASTER - owner or manager of a foundry
    IVORY WORKERS - included makers of combs, boxes, billard balls, buttons, and keys for pianofortes

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    J

    JACK - young male assistant, sailor, or lumberjack
    JACK-FRAME TENTER - cotton industry worker who operated a jack-frame, used for giving a twist to the thread \par JACK-SMITH - maker of lifting machinery and contrivances
    JAGGER - carrier, carter, pedlar or hawker of fish; 19th century, young boy in charge of 'jags'or train of trucks in coal mine; man in charge of pack horse carrying iron ore to be smelted
    JAKES-FARMER - one who emptied cesspools
    JAPANNER - one who covers with a hard brilliant coat of any of several varnishes
    JERQUER - custom house officer who searched ships
    JERSEY COMBER - worker in woollen manufacture (Jersey - wool which has been combed but not spun into yarn)
    JIGGERMAN - operated a spinning wheel (Jigger) to form the foot (back side) of a ceramic plate
    JOBBER - a buyer in quantity to sell to others, a pieceworker
    JOBLING GARDENER - one employed on a casual basis
    JOBMASTER - supplied carriages, horses and drivers for hire
    JOYNER or JOINER - skilled carpenter
    JONGLEUR - traveling minstrel
    JOURNEYMAN / JORMAN - one who served his apprenticeship and mastered his craft; properly, one who no longer is bound to serve for years but is hired day to day
    JOUSTER - fish monger

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    K

    KEDGER - fisherman
    KEEKER - colliery official who checked quantity and quality of coal output or weighman
    KEELER / KEELMAN - bargeman (from keel, a flat bottomed boat)
    KEEPER - controlled the quantities of ore and fuel, regulated the blast and tapped the molten metal from the furnace
    KEMPSTER - wool comber
    KIDDIER - skinner or dealer in young goats
    KILNER - limeburner, in charge of a kiln
    KISSER - made cuishes and high armour
    KNACKER - harness maker, buyer of old horses and dead animals
    KNAPPERS - dressed and shaped flints into required shape and size
    KNELLER / KNULLER - chimmney sweep who solicited custom by knocking on doors
    KNOCKER-UP - man paid to wake up northern mill and factory workers on early shifts
    KNOCKKNOBBLER - dog catcher
    KNOLLER - toller of bells

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    L

    LACE-DRAWER - child employed in lace work, drawing out threads
    LACEMAN - dealer in lace, who collected it from the makers, usually only those who had bought his thread, and sold it in the lace markets
    LACE-MASTER / MISTRESS - employed workers in factories or in their homes for the production of lace
    LACE-RUNNER - young worker who embroidered patterns on lace
    LACEWOMAN - lady's maid
    LAGGER - sailor
    LAGRAETMAN - local constable (Law-Rightman)
    LAMPA / LAMPE - Swedish and German for glass blower, i.e. oil lamp maker
    LARDNER - keeper of the cupboard
    LASTER - shoe maker
    LATTENER - brass worker
    LANDWAITER - customs officer whose duty was to wait or attend on landed goods
    LAUNDERER - washer
    LAVENDER - washer woman
    LAYER - worker in paper mill responsible for a particular stage in paper-making process
    LEAVELOOKER - examined food on sale at market
    LEECH or SAWBONES - physician
    LEGERDEMAINIST - magician
    LEGGER - canal boatman
    LEHRER - teacher
    LEIGHTONWARD - gardener (leighton - a garden)
    LIGHTERMAN - worker on a flat-bottomed boat
    LIMNER - illuminator of books, painter or drawer
    LINENER - linen draper, shirtmaker
    LINER / LYNER - flax dresser
    LINKERBOY / MAN - one who carried a link or torch to guide people through city streets at night for a small fee (had to be licensed to trade in early 19th century had and term later sometimes applied to general manservant )
    LISTER / LITSTER - dyer
    LITTERMAN - groom (of horses)
    LOADSMAN - ship's pilot
    LOBLOLLY BOY - ship's doctor's assistant or errand boy
    LOCK KEEPER - overseer of canal locks
    LONGSHOREMAN - stevedore
    LONG SONG SELLER - street seller who sold popular songsheets printed on paper
    LORIMER - maker of horse gear
    LOTSELLER - street seller
    LOTTER - one who bought odd lots of wool and consolidated them for sale
    LUMPER - dock laborer who discharged cargo of timber employed by a master lumper (not the Dock Company) or fine-grain saltmaker, from practice of moulding salt into lumps
    LUM SWOOPER - chimney sweep
    LUNGS - alchemist's servant whose duty was to fan the fire
    LUTHIER - maker and repairer of stringed musical instruments

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    M

    MADERER - gathered and sold garlic
    MAID - female domestic servant
    MAIL GUARD - armed guard, frequently an ex-soldier, employed on the mail coach service
    MAISE MAKER - one who made measures for weighing herring catch
    MALEMAKER - maker of 'Males' or travelling bags
    MALENDER - farmer
    MALSTER - brewer, maker or seller of malts
    MANCIPLE - steward
    MANGLER - works a mangle
    MANGLE KEEPER - woman who offered use of the mangle for a fee
    MANGO - slave dealer
    MANTUAMAKER - dressmaker
    MARBLER - one who stained paper or other material, veined in imitation of marble
    MARSHALL - horse doctor of shoesmith
    MARSHMAN - paid by various landowners to look after marshlands and tend the animals put to graze there for the season
    MASHMAKER - maker of the mash-vats or mashels used for mixing malt
    MASON - stonecutter
    MASTER - one of three grades of skill recognised by the Guild of Crafts
    MASTER LUMPER - contractor of laborers at cheap rate of pay
    MASTER MARINER - ship's captain
    MASTER-SHIFTER - in charge on repair shift
    MATCHET FORGER - knifemaker
    MAWER - mower
    MEALMAN - dealer in meal or flour
    MELDER - corn miller
    MERCATOR - merchant
    MERCER - cloth seller
    METERER - poet

    Mi

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    MIDWIFE - experience woman who assists in child birth
    MILESMAN / LENGTHSMAN - railway worker who had a length of railway track to keep in good order
    MILLER - corn miller, cloth miller, saw miller
    MILLERESS - miller's wife
    MILLERS CARMAN - drove carrier to deliver the flour or seed to the customers
    MILLPECK - sharpener of mill stones
    MILLNER - maker of womens' hats
    MILLWRIGHT - designer & builder of mills or mill machinery
    MILSTONE INSPECTOR - vagrant, a gentleman of the road
    MINTMAKER or MINTMASTER - issuer of local currency
    MIXER - bartender
    MOCADO WEAVER - weaver of woollen cloth used for making clothes 16-17th century
    MOLD BOY -closed and held mold for glassblower, also weighed the bottles
    MOLITOR - miller
    MONDAYMAN - one who worked for landowner on Mondays in lieu of rent
    MONGER - (i.e., fish) - dealer
    MONTHLY NURSE - someone who assisted women during the first month after giving birth
    MOULDER - maker of molds or castings, brickmaker
    MOUNTEBANK - seller if ineffectual patent medicines
    MUDLARK - sewer cleaner, riverbank scavenger
    MUFFIN MAKER - maker who made muffins
    MUFFIN MAN - itinerant seller of muffins
    MUGGLER - pigman
    MUGSELLER - seller of cups, mugs
    MULE MINDER - minded the spinning mules in the cotton mills
    MULESKINNER - teamster
    MULETEER - mule driver
    MULTURER - miller
    MUSICKER - musician
    MUSLIN SEWER / MUSLIN FLOWERER - tambouring muslin cloth for household use which would be called embroidery today
    MUSTARDER / MUSTARDMAN - made and dealt in mustard

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    N

    NAGELSCHMIEDMEISTER - master nailsmith
    NAGSMAN - a person who schools horses, usually for his employer
    NAPERER - royal servant in charge of table linen
    NAPIER - naperer
    NARROW WEAVER - weaver of ribbons, tapes, etc
    NAVIGATOR - laborer building canals or railways
    NEATHERD - cowherder
    NECKER - worker responsible for the feeding of cardboard into the machine the makes boxes
    NEDELLER - needle maker
    NECESSARY WOMAN - servant responsible for emptying and cleaning chamber pots
    NETTER - net maker
    NIGHT SOILMAN / NIGHTMAN - one who emptied cesspits, ashpits and backyard toilets
    NIGHTWALKER - watchman or bellman
    NIMGIMMER - doctor
    NIPPER - lorry boy, a young person employed by the carter or wagoner to assist with the collection and delivery of goods
    NOB THATCHER - wig maker
    NOON TENDER - guarded the goods on the quay while the officers were a lunch
    NOTERER - notary

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    O

    OCCUPIER - tradesman
    OILMAN - sold the oil for lamps
    OLITOR - kitchen gardener (from Olitory-a kitchen garden)
    ORDERLY - soldier who functioned as a servant for an officer
    ORDINARY KEEPER - innkeeper
    ORRERY MAKER - made a mechanical apparatus for showing the movements of the planets (named after the Earl of Orrery the inventor)
    ORRICE WEAVER - designer of lace patterns to be woven with silk thread and silk
    OSIER PEELER - removed bark from willow rods or osiers which were used in basket weaving, usually women and children (also known as withy peelers)
    OSTIARY - monastery door keeper
    OSTLER - originally applied to an innkeeper/taverner or one who received guests especially in an monastery (13th century) but later on it came to mean stableboy or a person who looked after horses, coming from the old French 'hostelier'
    OUT CRIER - auctioneer
    OUTWORKER - worker who carried on their occupation at home, e.g., cotton or woollen weavers but it applies to many occupations
    OVERLOOKER - superintendent or overseer, especially in the textile mills
    OVERMAN - official below Undermanager but above Deputy in mining
    OVERMAN - supervisor in a colliery who checked the miners work and the quality of the mined coal
    OWLER - sheep or wool smuggler
    OYSTER DREDGER - member of the crew on board an oyster fishing boat

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    P

    PACKER - packs goods such as pickles or herring
    PACKMAN - travelled around carrying goods for sale in a pack
    PACK THREAD SPINNER - operator of the machine which made thread or twine
    PAD MAKER - made small baskets used for measuring
    PAGE - youth being trained for the medieval rank of knight and in the personal service of a knight or attendant upon someone of rank in the medieval period
    PAINTRESS - woman employed in the pottery industry to hand paint the finished articles
    PAPER-STAINER - one who made wallpaper
    PALING MAN - seller of eels
    PALISTER - one who ensured the parks were safe and well kept
    PALMER - one who had been, or pretended to have been, to the Holy Land
    PANNIER MAN - fish monger
    PANNIFEX - somebody who worked in the cloth trade
    PANTER - keeper of the pantr
    PANTLER - butler
    PAPERER - inserted the needles into the paper ready for sale in the needlemaking trade
    PAPER RULER - operated a machine in the 19th century printing industry who was a skilled worker/operator who set up several inking pens in a machine,by the same name, designed to draw or ink lines on paper
    PARDONER - seller of indulgences
    PARFUMIER / PERFUMER - manufacturer and purveyor of scents such as perfumes, colognes and even incense
    PARGETER - applied ornamental plaster to buildings
    PARITOR - church officer who attended the magistrates and justices at court for the pupose of executing their orders
    PARKER - park caretaker
    PASSAGE KEEPER - kept passages and alleys clean
    PASTELER - pastry chef
    PASTOR - shepherd
    PATTEN MAKER - clog maker or the person who made wooden soles (pattens) to fit under normal shoes to protect from wet and muddy ground
    PAVER / PAVIOUR - laid paving stones
    PAVYLER - put up pavilions or tents etc
    PEDASCULE - schoolmaster
    PEELER - policeman, constable, bobby (from Sir Robert Peel founder of the police force)
    PELTERER - one who worked with animal skins
    PERAMBULATOR - surveyor
    PERCHEMEAR - one who made parchment
    PEREGRINATOR - itinerant wanderer
    PERUKER - wigmaker
    PESSONER - fish monger
    PETERMAN - fisherman
    PETTIFOGGER - shyster lawyer
    PETTY CHAPMAN - itinerant dealer in small goods, a pedlar
    PEWTERER - made pewter utensils (using any of various alloys having tin as chief component especially a dull alloy with lead)
    PHILOSOPHICAL INSTRUMENT MAKER - one who made scientific instruments
    PHRENOLOGIST - diviner of a person's character based on the bumps on a person's head

    Pi

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    PICKER - one who cast the shuttle on a loom
    PIECENER / PIECER - one who worked in a spinning mill, employed to piece together any threads which broke (usually a child or woman)
    PIGMAN - one who sold crockery or bred or looked after pigs on the farm
    PIKELET MAKER - baker who specialised in making pikelets (a small pancake or crumpet)
    PIKEMAN - miller's assistant
    PIKER - tramp or vagrant
    PILLER - robber
    PILOT - ship steersman
    PINDER - dog catcher
    PINER - laborer
    PINNER - pin make
    PINNER UP - dressmakers assistant or one who sold broadsheets or ballards in the streets
    PINSETTER - one who manually set up bowling pins before the advent of automated pinsetting machines
    PIPER - innkeeper
    PIRN WINDER - wound the yarn onto large wheel like bobbins which were then ready to feed the looms in a cotton mill
    PISTOR - baker
    PIT BROW LASS - female worker who worked on the surface of the mines
    PITMAN - coal miner
    PLAITER - maker of straw plaits used in making hats etc
    PLAYDERER - one who made plaid
    PLAIN WORKER - performed plain sewing or needlework as opposed to an embroiderer
    PLANKER - one who planks or kneads the body of the hat during felting
    PLATELAYER - men who laid and maintained the railway tracks in Britain and the word actually predates railways being derived from the very old "plateways" which existed hundireds of years ago, mainly for moving coal
    PLEACHER / PLAICHER / PLATCHER / PLASHER - hedge layer
    PLOWMAN - farmer
    PLOWWRIGHT - maker or repairer of plows
    PLUMASSIER / PLUMER - made or sold plumes, ornamental feathers
    PLUMBUM WORKER - plumber POINTER - sharpened needles or pins or lace maker
    POINTMAKER / POINTMAN - made the tips of laces
    POINTSMAN - railway worker who operated the points, used to change the line on which the train was travelling
    POLDAVE WORKER - made poldave, a coarse fabric
    POLEMAN - surveyor's assistant
    POLENTIER - poulterer
    POLLER / POWLER - barber
    PONDERATOR - inspector of weights and measures
    PORTABLE SOUP MAKER - converted soup into a dry form for transporting from place to place
    PORTER - door or gatekeeper
    POSTILLION - attacher of extra horses to wagons & coaches to help them up hills
    POST BOY - carried mail from town to town, guard who travelled on the mail coach or outrider who travelled with the stagecoach as a postillion
    POSTER - one who worked in the quarries breaking rocks
    POTATO BADGER - seller of potatoes
    POT BOY / MAN - one who worked in public houses washing and removing dirty pots also did other menial tasks
    POTTER - maker or seller of pottery
    POTTER CARRIER - chemist or pharmacist
    POTTER THROWER - potter who used a wheel and therefore had to throw the clay
    POULTER - seller of poultry
    POWER LOOM TUNER - one who maintained the loom in mills
    PUMPMAKER - around the turn of the 19th century as canals were becomeing important the word pumpmaker denoted a maker of canal locks
    PRENTIS - apprentice
    PRECEPTRESS - school mistress
    PREDIGER - preacher
    PRICKER - witch hunter, pattern maker or a horseman
    PRICK LOUISE - tailor
    PRICKER - used a type of wire brush to make small holes inside ceramic sewer pipe to prevent spalling during firing
    PRIG NAPPER - horse thief
    PROCTOR - official of a university
    PROP BOBBY - worked in mines checking the pit props
    PROTHONARY - law clerk
    PUBLICAN - innkeeper
    PUDDLER - worked clay into puddle, worked with puddle to make things water tight eg canal walls or worked in puddling iron
    PUGGARD - thief
    PUGGER - produce clay paste by treading like grapes, usually women and children in brick manufacturing
    PUG MILL OPERATOR - operated a machine for mixing clay and water, which then exuded a "pug" (a cylinder of clay of any diameter and indefinate length)
    PUNKY - chimney sweep
    PUREFINDER - old women and young girls who went about the streets gathering dog droppings which were used for tanning leather
    PURSER - ship's officer in charge of provisions & accounts
    PUTTER IN - put things in to some form of mechanised process

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    Q

    QUARREL PICKER - glazier
    QUARRIER / QUARRYMAN - quarry worker
    QUILLER - one who operated a machine that wound yarn onto spools
    QUILTER / QUILTRESS - one who quilted material
    QUISTER - one who bleached things
    QWYLWRYGHTE - wheelwright

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    R

    RACK MAIDEN - girl employed in the tin mines of Cornwall to dress the ore
    RAFFMAN - one who dealt in raff (saleable rubbish)
    RAFF MERCHANT - seller of fibre used to make raffia bags etc
    RAG CUTTER - one who cut up rags into small pieces to be used for making paper etc
    RAG GATHERERS - employed to clear the rags from the machinery in the mills (usually children)
    RAG MAN - one who went from street to street collecting and selling old clothes and rags
    RAG AND BONE MAN - one who went from street to street with a cart and collected any old rubbish, usually in exchange for a small item, e.g. a block of soapstone
    RAG PICKER - sorted through the left over rags to find re usable ones
    RAKER - street sanitation worker
    RATONER - rat catcher
    RATTLEWATCH - town watchman
    RECTIFIER - one who distilled alcoholic spirits
    REDAR - interpreter of dreams
    REDSMAN / REDDSMAN / REDESMAN - was employed in maintaining mine haulage ways
    REDSMITH - goldsmith
    REEDER - worked with reeds for hedging or thatching
    REEDMAKER - made the pipe for a musical instrument or made a weavers implement (a reed) or reed cloth or the comb used in tapestry
    REELER - operated the machine that wound the yarn onto the bobbin
    REEVE - church warden
    REEVER - shriever
    REGISTRAR - official who registers events such as land purchases or births
    RENOVATOR - one who repaired clothing
    REVENUER - taxman who enforces tax laws on liquor
    RICKMASTER - Captain of Horse
    RIDDLER - wool stapler
    RIFTERE - reaper
    RIGGER - hoist tackle worker; works on a ship's rigging
    RIPPER / RIPPIER - one who sold fresh water fish at the markets or maker and seller of baskets
    RIVERMAN - worker on a river boat
    ROCKMAN - worked in a quarry usually placing the charges on the rockface
    ROCKGETTER - rocksalt miner
    ROLLER COVERER - one who covered the rollers for the spinning process
    ROLLEYWAY MAN - maintained the underground road in the mines
    ROLL TURNER - carder of wool, cotton etc into rolls prior to spinning
    ROMAN CEMENTER / PLASTERER - one who worked with roman cement used in stuccoing
    ROPER - maker of rope or nets
    ROVER - archer or operator of a machine used in cotton mills which prepared the carded fibre into rolls
    RODMAN - surveyor's assistant
    RUBBISHER / RUBBLER - sorted the small stones in the quarries
    RUGMAN - dealer in rugs
    RUNNER - smuggler, messenger and ironically one who worked for the magistrate best remembered as Bow Street Runners
    RUSTLER - cattle thief

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    S

    SADDLER - one who made saddles, harnesses, horse collars, bridles
    SADDLE TREE MAKER - one who made the frames for saddles that the saddler used
    SAGGAR (also SAGGER) MAKER - one who made the fireclay containers in which the stoneware was placed ready for firing
    SAGGAR (also SAGGER) MAKER'S BOTTOM KNOCKER- was the saggar maker's assistant who tapped the bottom of the pots
    SALT BOILER - one who obtained salt by boiling water
    SALTER / DRYSALTER / SAUCER - one who made or dealt in salt
    SARCINET WEAVER - silk weaver
    SALOONIST - saloon keeper
    SANDESMAN - ambassador or messenger
    SAND HOG - those who dug the tunnel under the river
    SANDWICHMAN - wears a sandwich billboard for advertising
    SAW DOCTOR - made, repaired, maintained and sharpened a wide range of cutting tools and saw blades and also maintained and aligned mechanical parts of a range of production machines
    SAWYER - saws timber to boards
    SAY WEAVER - one who made Say, material used for table cloths or bedding
    SCAGIOLA MAKER - one who made imitation marble
    SCALERAKER / SCAVENGER - employed by the parish to clean the streets
    SCAPPLER - one who roughly shaped the stone prior to being finished by the stonemason
    SCAVELMAN - employed to keep the waterways and ditches clear
    SCHRIMPSCHONGER - artisan who carves in bone, ivory, or wood
    SCHUMACKER - shoemaker
    SCOTCH DRAPER / SCOTCHMAN - sold goods door to door with payment to be made by installments
    SCREENER - screened the ore at the mines surface
    SCRIBE - clerk
    SCRIBLER - a minor or worthless author
    SCRIMER - fencing master
    SCRIVENER - clerk, notary
    SCRIBBLER - employed in a scibbling mill where the wool was roughly carded before spinning
    SCRIBER - employed at the docks to mark the cotton bales with the approximate weight ready for selling by the brokers
    SCRIPTURE READER - employed by the local clergy to go from house to house reading parts of the bible to try and encouragepeople to attend church, also read scriptures during some services
    SCRIVENER - wrote out legal documents etc
    SCRUTINEER - election judge
    SCUTCHER - beat the flax to soften the straw in the bundles
    SCULLERY MAID - female servant who performed all the menial tasks
    SCULLION - male servant who performed all the menial tasks

    Se

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    SEAL PRESSER - employed in the glass industry to seal the bath against air intake which could spoil the finished surface
    SEARCHER - customs man
    SECRET SPRINGER - one made watch springs
    SEEDSMAN - sower of seeds
    SEDGEMAN - skilled workman who applied sedge (type of grass) which was used as an early roofing material
    SELF ACTING MINDER - one in charge of the automatic spinning mule in the mills
    SEMI LORER - maker of leather thongs
    SEMPSTER - seamstress
    SENESCHAL - A senior steward at the Manor
    SEWER HUNTER (also see TOSHHR) - scavenger who concentrated on the sewers trying to find valuable objects
    SEWER RAT - bricklayer who specialised in making and repairing sewers and tunnels
    SEWING CLERK - collector of clothing piecework
    SEWSTER - seamstress
    SEXTON - employee or officer of a church who cared and upkept church property and sometimes rang bells and dug graves
    SHAGREEN CASE MAKER - one who worked with shagreen leather
    SHANTY MAN - lumberman
    SHARECROPPER - tenant farmer who would be paid with part of the crop
    SHEARER - removed the fleece from sheep
    SHEARGRINDER - sharpened shears, scissors
    SHEARMAN or SHERMAN - shearer of cloth, metal
    SHEATH MAKER - one who made scabbards for swords
    SHEEPMAN - sheep herder
    SHEPSTER - dressmaker
    SHIFTER - miner paid day rate per shift, usually on repair work
    SHINGLER - A roof tiler who used wooden tiles (shingles)
    SHIP HUSBAND - repairer of ships while in harbor
    SHIP MASTER - owner or captain of a ship
    SHIPWRIGHT - constructor or repairer or ships
    SHOE FINDER - seller of shoe maker's tools
    SHOESMITH - cobbler, one who shoed horses
    SHOE WIPER - servant who polished shoes
    SHOPJOINER / SHOP JOYNER - housewright
    SHOT FIRER - one in charge of blasting in mines or quarries
    SHRAGER - one who trimmed and pruned trees
    SHRIEVE - sheriff
    SHUFFLER - yardman on the farms
    SHUNTER - one who moved rolling stock around the railway yards
    SHUSTER - shoe maker
    SHUTTLE MAKER - made the shuttles for the weaving mills
    SICKLEMAN - reaper
    SIDESMAN - one who assisted the churchwarden
    SILK ENGINE TURNER - turned the wheel on automatic silk weaving looms
    SILK THROWER - worker in the silk industry
    SILKER - sewed the ends of the fabric to prvent the layers from separating
    SILK DRESSER - prepared the silk for weaving
    SILK MERCER - sold silk cloth and items made from silk
    SILK TWISTER - silk spinner
    SIMPLER - agriculturist that we would call herbalist today
    SILVERSMITH - worked with silver
    SISSOR or CISSOR - tailor
    SIZER - applied the size to cloth or worked in a paper mill
    SKEINER MAKER - made wheels used in spinning industry upon which yarn was wound
    SKEPPER / SKELPER - one who made and sold beehives
    SKINKER - tapster in an ale house
    SKINNER - dealer in hides, mule driver
    SKIPMAKER - one who made the skips used in mining and quarrying for moving men or materials to the surface
    SKIPPER - master of a ship

    Sl

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    SLAPPER / SLAPER - one who worked in a pottery preparing the clay for the potter
    SLATER - roofer
    SLAYMAKER - apparently an Old English name meaning maker of slay's--wooden pegs used in weaving
    SLOPSELLER - seller of readymade clothes in a slop shop
    SLUBBER - operated the machine used to prepare cotton for spinning
    SLUBBER DOFFER - removed the bobbins from the spindles in the mills
    SMACKMAN - worked on a sailing ship (as a sloop or cutter) used chiefly in coasting and fishing
    SMALLWARE MAKER - who made smallware, e.g. tapes, braids etc
    SMELTER - worker in a metal smelter, smelt fisherman
    SMIDDY - smith
    SMITH - metal worker
    SMUGSMITH - smuggler
    SNAPPER - worker in glass factory who placed molded bottle (by neck) into furnace hole
    SNOBSCAT - one who repair shoes
    SNUFFER MAKER - made the candle snuffer
    SOAP BOILER (SOPER) - soap maker
    SOJOURNER CLOTHIER - travelling clothes salesman
    SOLICITOR - lawyer
    SORTOR - tailor
    SOUTER - shoe maker
    SPALLIER - tin worker who performs chiefly menial tasks
    SPERVITER - keeper of sparrows
    SPICER - grocer or dealer in spices
    SPINNER - spins yarn
    SPLITTER - operated a splitting machine or one who split things by hand, e.g. stone, timber etc
    SPOONER - made spoons
    SPURRER or SPURRIER - maker of spurs
    SQUIRE - (esquire) practitioner of a profession, a gentleman
    SUPERCARGO - officer on merchant ship in charge of cargo
    STABLER - ostler
    STALLMAN - keeper of a market stall
    STAMPMAN - worker of an ore crushing machine
    STATIONER - bookseller, seller of paper & writing implements
    STATIST - politician
    STAY MAKER - corset maker
    STEEPLE JACKER - painted flag poles etc
    STEERSMAN - ship's helmsman
    STENTERER - operated the cloth finishing machine
    STEP BOY - employed to help passengers to enter or leave the coach
    STEVEDORE - laborer who unloads and loads ships' cargoes
    STEWARD - manager of property, purveyor of supplies or someone who attended passengers on conveyance
    STICHER - one who does decorative stitching
    STOCKINGER - knitter, weaver, or dealer in stockings
    STOKER - tends the fire of an engine boiler
    STONEMAN / STONEWARDEN - a surveyor of highways
    STONE PICKER - employed to remove the stones from the farmers fields before planting
    STONE WORKERS - worked with stone eg masons, quarriers etc
    STOREMAN - one responsible for stored goods
    STOVER / STEVER/ STAVER -- senior member of a "butty partnership" of miners, and in charge at the surface
    STOWYER - one who stowed the nets away on fishing boats
    STRAVAIGER - vagrant
    STRAW JOINER - one who thatched roofs
    STRAW PLAITER - one who made straw braids for the hat industry
    STREAKER - one who prepared the body for burial
    STREET ORDERLY / BOY - street cleaner
    STRIKER - blacksmiths helper or harpooned the whale
    STRIPPER - employed in the woollen trade to remove the rubbish from the carding machines
    STRINGER - made the strings for bows
    STUFF GOWSMAN - junior barrister
    STUFF WEAVER - wove stuff (the coarse part of flax)
    SUCKSMITH - one who made ploughshares
    SUMNER - summoner or apparitor
    SUMPTER - porter
    SUTLER - followed soldiers to encampments, set up tents to sell supplies, foodstuffs and dry goods
    SUTLER - merchant or peddler in an army camp
    SWAILER - miller or dealer in grain
    SWAIN - herdsman
    SWEEP - chimneysweep
    SWELL MAKER - one who made shallow baskets
    SWINEYARD / SWINEHERDER - pig keeper
    SWINGLER - one who beats flax to remove woody parts
    SWORD CUTLER - sword maker

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    Copyright 2007.
    Last revised: April 24, 2004