Nicholas Anderson is of particular interest for several reasons. He was a close lifelong associate of my 6th great-grandfather Edward "Ned" Williams, whose grand-daughter, Edy Williams, married John Allen's son Richard, my 4th great-grandfather, in 1820.
Edward Williams and Nicholas Anderson joined the Chopawamsic Baptist church in Prince William Co., VA the same day November 24, 1767. The Chopawamsic church had been constituted November 1766 by religious dissenters in Overwharton Parish, Prince William Co.
It should be noted John and Elizabeth Summars, as well as Betty Harper were also members of the Chopawamsic church. Betty Harper was the mother of John and Peter Harper.
A few years later all were living at or near Ft. Boonesborough, KY. Edward Eilliams and Nicholas Anderson signed the Corn Compact in April 1779. However, some researchers believe they didn't move their families to Kentucky until some time after 1779.
Both men were granted land in December 1779 at the headwaters of Hinkston Creek about 18 miles northeast of Ft. Boonesborough. It was too dangerous to move their families there at that time, so they remained near Ft. Boonesborough until 1791 or 1792.
Between 1780 and 1782, Nicholas Anderson showed up in George Rogers Clark's military records several times, as did Edward Williams, Daniel Williams, John Summers, John Harper and Peter Harper.
In September 1787, Nicholas Anderson, his wife Barbary, Edward Williams and his wife Jemima and Peter Harper joined the Howard's Creek Baptist church, just north of Ft. Boonesborough.
Some of the best research on Edward Williams and his son Daniel can be found on Bobby Daniel's website BobbyStuff.
There is no evidence John Allen and his first wife were ever members of the Howard's Creek church, but John Allen is recorded on the Fayette County tax list in 1788 along with Nicholas Anderson, Edward Williams John Harper, Peter Harper and John Summars.
By 1792 it must have been deemed safe enough to move to their land grants near the headwaters of Hinkston Creek (Little Mountain Creek) and Lulbegrud Creek over to the east in newly formed Clark Co.
Headwaters of Hinkston (Little Mountain) Creek - Aug. 2009.
The ridge between the headwaters of Hinkston and Lulbegrud Creeks - Aug. 2009.
Based on actual 1793 tax enumeration dates, it is apparent John Allen lived very near these same families at Anderson's Station up until about 1799.
Nicholas Anderson's cabin must have been well fortified, as it became known as Anderson's Station by local settlers. It would have been located just north of the junction of KY-11 and KY-646 south of Mt. Sterling.
Bill LaBach’s map does a nice job approximating these lands along KY 11 about 2 miles south of Mt. Sterling.
The Great Warrior's Path ran directly through these lands and based on Filson's 1784 map probably following the Lulbegrud to the Hinkston or about where KY-11 is today south of Mt. Sterling. Anderson, Williams and the others may have chosen this location to be near a main trading route.
The two records that have helped establish John Allen’s whereabouts in 1792-1793 are the Clark Co., KY tax lists for 1792-1796 and the minutes of the Lulbegrud Baptist church founded March 1793.
From the landowners listed the same day on these tax lists we can see John must have lived near Anderson’s Station, which was on the ridge at the headwaters of Hingston Creek. This would be about 2 miles south of Mt. Sterling in present day Montgomery Co.
The following names were recorded the same day, Monday, Sept. 2, 1793. To give some indication of each person’s situation, I have included horses, cattle and acres (if any) after their names.
John Allen 5-19, James Anderson 3-11, Nicholas Anderson 5-63-800, Abihu Anderson 2-5, Joshua Bartlett 3-0, John Bartlett 12-35, James Bradshaw, 2, 4, Audley Curt 0-3, Joseph Clemons 3-4, Robert Drayhart? 4-2, Peter Dewitt 2-14, Martin Dewitt 3-9, John Downey, Samuel Elkins 0- 4, Moses Fraze 4-30, James Fraze, Peter Fort 5-11, Anthony Griffin 1-6, Richard Griffin Sr 5-15, Richard Griffin Jr 1-4, John Harper 5- 40-400, James Hartley, Stephen England 2-4, James McGill 6-32, John McKee 6-27-150,William McLee? 9-23-400, William Payne 9-36-600, Jonathon Ridgeway 1-4, Green? Rigsbury (maybe Greenbury Riggs) 2-12-290, John Treadway 5-11, Edward Williams 3-32-1287, Daniel Williams 4-10, Moses Wilkinson 6-32.
Among those recorded the following day were: John McGuire, James Trimble and John White; more names associated with John Allen. I have not been able to determine who actually recorded the Clark Co. taxpayers, but David Bullock, Clark County Clerk, attested to their accuracy.
From what I have been able to determine, it wasn’t until 1810 that taxpayers were required to travel to the tax commissioners to file their taxes. Previous to that time tax commissioners travelled the countryside, no doubt attempting to visit all those in a given area at the same time. It was also normal and customary for pioneers to invite travellers to have dinner and spend the night with them. A tax commissioner might have spent the entire week away from his own home, except for Saturday and Sunday, which were reserved for church activities.
The men with land at Anderson’s Station had acquired preemptions on their land there while living at Fort Boonesborough around 1779, but it had been too dangerous to actually move their families until 1789-92.
The Great Warriors Path ran directly through Anderson’s Station following Hinkston Creek from the north on to Lulbegrud Creek to the south. It had been used for centuries by native Americans and connected the Great Lakes with the Gulf of Mexico.
The Hingston (aka Little Mountain Creek) flows northward from this ridge through Mt. Sterling, about 2 miles distant, eventually emptying into the Licking River and then the Ohio River. On the other hand, the Lulbegrud flows southward from the ridge down to the Red River.
Since John Allen did not have a preemption for land, this suggests he had not arrived earlier in the 1770s, as some of the other settlers but had arrived in Kentuckysome possibly just before 1788. Since he didn’t have a military warrant to exercise, that suggests he didn’t serve in the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War. Although it is possible John did serve in a state militia, whose veterans were not elegible for land warrants.
John and his wife died before Federal pensions became available for veterans, so we haven’t been able to find anything showing he served in the war. He might have been too young, or he might have been too old. Or he might have served in a state other than Virginia. Only Virginia paid their soldiers with military land grants in Kentucky, which was one of its unorganized counties.
John is listed with 5 horses and 19 head of cattle on the 1793 Clark Co., KY tax list. We had a family with 4 or 5 children and at least a dozen or more head of cattle that had moved several hundred miles through the wilderness by 1788.
This 1793 Clark Co. tax image illustrates several points.
From John’s entry we can see he was taxed on 5 horses and 19 head of cattle. He was not taxed for any males in the household between the ages of 16 and 21, but he was taxed on himself being over 21. The exact items taxed from year to year varied as government needs changed.
John was recorded Sept. 2, the same day as Nicholas Anderson who had 5 horses, 63 head of cattle and 800 acres, along with James and Abihu Anderson. From this we can see John must have lived near Nicholas Anderson and his son Abihu.
The number of horses owned by a family can be important to genealogy. A pioneer wouldn’t keep any more horses than absolutely necessary. Generally the number of horses or mules would equate to the number of family members old enough to use a horse. In fact a pioneer with only 1 horse is a good indication he wasn’t married. John’s 5 horses fit his family well with a wife and 4 children aged 10 or more.
Since cows can only have 1 calf per year, it is obvious these pioneers brought large numbers of cattle along with them as they migrated to Kentucky.
The 800 acres Nicholas Anderson was taxed on in 1793 can be seen on the above map as 2 plats, 387 acres and 400 acres.
At the time John Allen and his family moved to Kentucky, his children could not have been much help. Given that and the danger of Indian attacks in those times, it is almost certain John and his family travelled to Kentucky with other families or relatives.
If they migrated to Kentucky from southwest Virginia, eastern Tennessee or North Carolina, they probably travelled the popular Wilderness Trail into central Kentucky and then back eastward to Clark County.
However, if they came from western Pennsylvania, Maryland or what is now West Virginia, they likely travelled down the Ohio River to Maysville, KY and then overland on the new road from there into eastern Kentucky. Or they might have come across Virginia more directly through the Pound Gap and the new road opening up between there and Mt. Sterling.
Some of John’s neighbors had roots in Stafford and Prince William Co., VA up along the Potomac River on the east coast. Those include Nicholas Anderson, Edward Williams, John Harper and John Summers. But these families seem to have moved to KY years earlier, first living at or near Boonesborough.
Of John Allen’s neighbors in 1792, the Lykins, Dewitts, Griffins and Treadways seem most likely to have arrived about the same time as John and his family.
The Griffins and Treadways had roots in Charlotte Co., VA in south central VA. Those two families probably did travel the Wilderness Trail together into eastern KY around 1792.
Isaac Lykins and William Lykins had roots in Berks Co., PA. Peter Dewitt and Martin Dewitt were from Hampshire Co., VA up near the Cumberland area of western Maryland and western Pennsylvania. Either or both of these families may have come down the Ohio River to Maysville. In Benjamin Allen’s interview by Shane, he talked about coming down the Ohio River by flatboat to KY from the Cumberland area of Maryland in 1790. Actually, we don’t know that this Benjamin Allen of Clark County wasn’t related in some way to John Allen.
But we have found no evidence yet that John Allen travelled with any of those families or had roots in those areas back east. It may be worthy of note that none of the families in early Clark/Montgomery Co. seem to have had roots in North Carolina.
If John and his wife followed tradition, and we have the order of their children correct, John’s parents might have been George and Sarah (Sally) Allen. John’s wife might have been Hannah, and her parents might have been Joshua and Catherine (Catey). There are, in fact, several George Allens in the Stafford-Prince William area of Virginia in the early 1700s.